This article argues that the creation of a creole estate in early nineteenth-century Russian America was motivated by cultural rather than racial concerns. Creoles were the offspring of Russian or indigenous men and native women. An analysis of the earliest known list of creoles allows the author to examine the social structure of the new creole class and to note that there was a high degree of social stratification within the estate.
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Copyright 2013 by American Society for Ethnohistory