Many Native American peoples of the Plains kept oral histories in which periods of time were designated by events. Often pictorial recordings of these events were created as mnemonic devices to assist proper memory, which itself was some-times recorded in written language. These pictorial calendars occasionally resurface and provide new insights into the histories of Native Americans. A new pictorial calendar of the Mandan Indians has recently reappeared. It and the circumstances of its reappearance are described, and suggestions toward a possible interpretation are offered.

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