This article provides an overview of the recent interactions between the highlanders of northern Vietnamand the successive powers that controlled the state between 1802 and 1975: Imperial Vietnam until 1883, the French colonial state until 1954, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam after that date. Ignored for a long time, courted during wartime, subject to strong acculturation policy since the independence of the North, these highland societies are facing a constant challenge to their cultural survival.
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Jean Michaud; The Montagnards and the State in Northern Vietnam from 1802 to 1975: A Historical Overview. Ethnohistory 1 April 2000; 47 (2): 333–368. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/00141801-47-2-333
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