Jill Carter has spearheaded the interpretive practice of “red reading,” wherein a canonical text is read through an Indigenous perspective, and has proven the validity of approaching traditional texts or problems through a decolonized or non-European method. To date, the red reading methodology has been most noticeably used to decentralize a Eurocentric reading of Indigeneity in North American literature, though as this article illustrates, the concepts of red reading can be expanded to analyze texts from across temporal and cultural periodization, which allows us to approach texts from a new perspective. In red reading a text like The Book of Margery Kempe, with its emphasis on holism and fluid consciousness, we can reach past the orality and textuality at the forefront of the text to interrogate and explore the liminality of a third (ghostly) consciousness.

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