I would argue that “Mediterranean religion” is a functional category for a host of reasons. The common Abrahamic root of the three main faiths in medieval Mediterranean society is obvious. When compared to other bodies of water in Eurasia, such as the Indian Ocean, or even the Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean is not as diverse as it is often portrayed. In few other Eurasian seas has one category of faith (Abrahamic monotheism) dominated for so many centuries. Here, however, I focus on how the category of Mediterranean religion also emerged through the conflict and interaction between Jews, Muslims, and Christians. In particular, I focus on what I call the economics of spiritual exchange. To show what I mean, I center on the Renaissance of the twelfth century, a period of highly active spiritual exchange and comparison, a period also defined...

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