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Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2009) 33 (2): 1–44.
Published: 01 April 2009
...Lynn Festa Drawing on Parliamentary debates, print polemics, and satirical prints, this essay traces the rhetorical erosion of seemingly categorical distinctions between human and animal, animate and inanimate, person and thing, in the controversy that arose around the 1796 imposition of a tax...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2005) 29 (2): 47–90.
Published: 01 April 2005
..., and much of what we know of wigs comes from anecdotal as well as documentary evidence: letters and diaries, newspapers, advertisements, religious polemics, satires on fashion, taxes on luxuries like hair powder, and treatises on hairdressing, as well as images, from Kneller’s Kit-Kat club portraits...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2002) 26 (1): 46–69.
Published: 01 January 2002
... championship of “the people,” and more specifi- cally, his credibility on such issues as Chelsea Hospital and the proposed maidservant tax. On the other hand, supporters of the government candi- date, Sir Cecil Wray, eventually found it necessary to respond to Fox’s...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2022) 46 (3): 1–9.
Published: 01 September 2022
... and their descendants, 6 percent; more remote relatives and strangers in blood, 10 percent. 5. Legacy duty was based on the Dutch tax on successions, recently described by Adam Smith in The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith , vol. 2: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2018) 42 (2): 15–37.
Published: 01 April 2018
... were recorded as paid by Sleepe.” One possible explanation for the blank ’ rst name is that Esther’s mother, Mrs. Sleepe, had taken the property: since under coverture it was her husband who owed the tax, if the tax collector did not know her husband’s name, he may have left it blank...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2022) 46 (3): 10–29.
Published: 01 September 2022
... 4833.0.3½ 4833.0.3½ Total of Property 13330.8.3 PAYMENTS Probate or Administration 243.5.6 returned duty £40 13 203.5.6 Funeral Expenses 14 113.12.7 Expenses attending Executorship or Administration 111.11.4½ Debts on simple Contract, Rent and Taxes, Wages, etc due...
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Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2017) 41 (2): 122–138.
Published: 01 April 2017
...-century feudal barons.9 They transmitted this right to the following period through the good offices of the jurists, extending its reach to types of property not always available in medieval times. Among these extended rights were the right to tax foreigners more heavily than “locals” and—from...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2002) 26 (2): 23–44.
Published: 01 April 2002
... hard a Fate be took, One night enjoy’d, the next forsook. 22 Similarly, in 1689 all good moneyed and landed citizens were being reminded of “so hard a Fate” as they prepared for increased taxes to fund William’s war against France. As early as late...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2005) 29 (2): 3–24.
Published: 01 April 2005
... and livestock in the minds of those who especially val- ued economic productivity. Similarly, Petty’s “collateral advantages” of a scheme for equalizing taxes became in Swift’s hands the “one other Col- lateral Advantage [of eating Irish babies], by lessening the Number of Papists among us” (12:112...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2020) 44 (3): 119–139.
Published: 01 September 2020
... of Man (1791, 1792), Paine had condemned war as a device used to tax and deceive the people, and claimed that an ongoing, radical demys- ti˜cation of corrupt government would allow people across the world to escape from the errors of the past into a new age of peace.22 Barbauld shared Paine s desire...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2001) 25 (2): 237–251.
Published: 01 April 2001
... by the 1790s the taxes to support the poor rates posed a heavy burden to any above the level of poverty. Many contemporary com- mentators noted that in a significant number of cases these taxes could tip the balance from sufficiency to poverty for a working family...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2013) 37 (3): 105–109.
Published: 01 September 2013
..., on commerce, money, taxes, interest, and public credit might have been explored. It is unfortunate that no treatment is given to Adam Smith’s analysis of enthusiasm in The Wealth of Nations, particularly his claim, contra Hume, that, instead of fostering enthu- siasm, competition among religious sects...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2013) 37 (1): 97–118.
Published: 01 January 2013
... of the Face of the Earth, than suffered to levy a vast annual Tax on the City” (139). Such caustic observations moved Joseph McMinn, who finds this “one of [Swift’s] more bizarre” and “cranky” pieces, to exclaim, “This should be, but is not parody,” and led David Nokes to characterize the pamphlet...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2001) 25 (2): v–ix.
Published: 01 April 2001
....” As pleasurable as compiling the essays has been, it is a relief to have this issue in print, as two years of fibbing to Bob about its focus and con- tents has taxed my ingenuity on many occasions. I owe a special debt to the managing editor for his skills at subterfuge. And thanks...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2002) 26 (3): 139–163.
Published: 01 September 2002
... century Ottoman society contained two major classes: one was comprised of the court, the army, civil servants, and clergy; the other of all those who paid taxes but had no part in the government.5 Hence, in the beginning of the eighteenth century a bourgeois middle class...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2012) 36 (1): 107–112.
Published: 01 January 2012
... could be made hereditary by paying a tax to the king (88). The long-­standing view is that Voltaire maintained a lifelong hostility toward the parlements, whose members, mainly Jansenist-­leaning lawyers, he is alleged to have considered bigoted, self-­interested reactionaries, hostile...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2005) 29 (1): 23–49.
Published: 01 January 2005
... they furnish, to the rectifi cation of her principles and the formation of her habits. The great uses of study to women are to enable her to regulate her own mind, and to be instrumental to the good of others.43 The revolutionary spirit had abated; women would continue to be taxed...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2007) 31 (1): 81–87.
Published: 01 January 2007
... pages on James I for a cautionary example for executives set on judging the legality of elections (93 – 95), and John Dickinson quoted from it: “The power of taxing themselves was the privilege of which the English were, with reason, particularly jealous” (103). Yet one might ask whether nuggets...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2015) 39 (1): 66–102.
Published: 01 January 2015
..., and the penal laws had little to say about trade. A wealth tax was imposed on all Catholics in England in 1723, but assessments of Irish mer- chants seem absurdly low: Martin Harrold, who reckoned his wealth in 1725 to be not less than £34,000, was “charged for £200 stock” in 1723. John Fitzgerald...
Journal Article
Eighteenth-Century Life (2008) 32 (3): 1–19.
Published: 01 September 2008
... to George I, suggesting that she may have had reservations about the Hanoverian succession. Bridges advised her that if she refused, she would be taxed as a Roman Catholic.32 At the time his correspondence with St. John began, Trumbull, “states- man turned gardener,” was living in peaceful rural...