The essay looks at individuals from Ireland who came to London between the 1660s and 1780s. Some belonged to groups that had particular reasons to be there, such as wealthy landowners with property in both England and Ireland, would-be lawyers and physicians, writers and artists, clergymen and active members of religious sects. Occasions when sizable numbers of the Irish met are discussed. Also, other factors that may have encouraged a sense of “Irishness,” such as residential districts favored by the Irish or continuing use of the Irish language, are considered. The occasional evidence of coordinated activity is set against the forces that encouraged assimilation into the local London and English cultures, thereby diluting “Irishness.”

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