Because of its importance to society, the science of mind and behavior is an academic field in which ethical and social considerations are vital. When examining these issues, the opinions of life-science researchers must be considered. In this article, the authors elicit and describe the opinions of sixty-one Japanese life-science researchers on the ethical and social issues surrounding the science of mind and behavior. The results reveal significant diversity of opinions, especially when the subject was the genetic “enhancement” and “medical treatment” of human mental abilities. Moreover, there was a lack of consensus regarding the application of mind and behavior research to social policy. The results suggest that a wide range of life-science researchers should be involved in discussions of these controversial but socially important issues.

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