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White Noise Process

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Journal Article
Demography (1979) 16 (4): 575–601.
Published: 01 November 1979
... 1979 Forecast Error ARMA Model White Noise Process Transfer Function Model Total Birth References Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1976. Projections of the Population of Australia 1977 to 2001. Base Year 1976. (Preliminary Estimates). Canberra, Australia. Bates J. M...
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (4): 673–677.
Published: 01 November 1984
...) where B refers to the shift operator con- 675 ventionally used in ARIMA terminology; F t to the birth series; and at is a "white noise" process. As suggested by the Rindfuss et aI. study, the first characterization of the intervention of Brown vs. Board of Edu- cation upon the fertility time series...
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (4): 679–682.
Published: 01 November 1984
...- ed statistics that (I-B)2S0F resem- bles a "white noise" process. In short, the results are sensitive to the type of model fit. We can replicate Ho- gan's nonfindin1. by using either (I_B)2 FDIF or (I-B) SOF as the dependent variable." In so doing, we are essentially examining the rate of fertility...
Journal Article
Demography (1983) 20 (4): 541–568.
Published: 01 November 1983
..., then this function should resemble that which would be produced by a white noise process, i.e., it should contain no statistically significant estimates. For model (7), Table 3 reports the estimated residual autocorrelation function after equation (8) is applied to the mortality series. Bartlett's approximate...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (3): 1105–1128.
Published: 29 November 2012
... of closest proximity, and a user’s movement can be estimated by analyzing the phone’s transitions from one tower to another. More accurate location data may be obtained if a phone is capable of processing signal information from multiple cellular towers, from nearby devices, or from satellites (Eagle et al...
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Journal Article
Demography (1993) 30 (3): 425–441.
Published: 01 August 1993
..., itself, f(lt) is a function of the intervention variable, c is a constant term, and N, 428 Demography, Vol. 30, No.3, August 1993 is the noise component. The noise N, can be modeled by a mixed autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) process (2) where et is white noise. Either a permanent or a transitory...
Journal Article
Demography (1996) 33 (4): 511–521.
Published: 01 November 1996
... on wages of the percentage female in one’s job is robust across procedures for black women, white women, and white men. For black men the sign is always negative but the coefficient is often nonsignificant. 14 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1996 1996 National Longitudinal...
Journal Article
Demography (1974) 11 (4): 563–585.
Published: 01 November 1974
... the distribution of the vari- ance of the process by frequency or period. An uncorrelated or "white noise" process has a constant spectrum; a proc- ess with a tendency to move cyclically will have a peak in its spectrum at the corresponding frequency. The spectrum of b, denoted gb (A), is related to the spectrum...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (1): 311–332.
Published: 20 September 2012
... are the following stationary second-order autoregressive processes: (12) (13) (14) where τ t , ς t , and η t are all assumed to be white noise. The following two equations represent the state-space model: (15) (16) where Eqs. ( 15 ) and ( 16 ) are known as the measurement and transition...
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Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (6): 1903–1921.
Published: 01 December 2023
..., as well as for key subpopulations of interest (see, e.g., Hauer and Santos-Lozada 2021 ; Mueller and Santos-Lozada 2022 ; Winkler et al. 2021 ). Research has found that the quality of the data post-DAS processing as it pertains to accurately producing distributions of racial-ethnic groups at lower...
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (1): 193–202.
Published: 01 February 2009
... involves testing for i = i 1 = 0 in the following equation: yit = i + i yit 1 + j yit j j=1 k + it , (A1) where k is the maximum lag speci ed and it is a white noise series representing approxi- mation error. Given the short run of annual data, 1980 2002, I choose the smallest k con- sistent...
Journal Article
Demography (1989) 26 (4): 645–660.
Published: 01 November 1989
... the 35 observations from 1941-1975. Each parameter has been transformed into logarithmic form. In each reported equation, L represents the lag operator. LX(I) = X(t - 1), and e(t) is a white noise process. Numbers in parentheses below estimated coefficients are standard errors. Q is the Ljung-Box...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (2): 655–684.
Published: 01 April 2021
... regressions. I find that Blacks, and to some extent Hispanics, are more likely to report hardships than Whites and Asians, who are about equally likely to report hardships. Exploring results by nativity and citizenship status, I find that immigrants who became U.S. citizens are less likely than the native...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (1): 57–66.
Published: 01 February 1975
... that one child is preferable to none, later that two are preferable to one, that three are preferable to two, and later that three are preferable also to four. In real life this process is distorted by consider- able noise, due to economic factors, twinning, infertility, failures in birth 65 control...
Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (4): 1251–1270.
Published: 06 June 2014
..., the healthy caregiver hypothesis does not preclude the need for leisure-time physical activity. Physical activity performed as a part of the caregiving process may not act as a mediator of caregiving stress; and to the extent that stress acts as a risk factor to a caregiver’s mental and physical health...
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (4): 1347–1375.
Published: 13 August 2011
... studies suggested that the differences originate at least in part in differences in genes, perhaps related to the process of twinning (e.g., Hall 2003 ; Kondo et al. 2002 ; Lubinsky and Hall 1991 ), and not just in the environment in the womb. For such reasons, within–MZ twins estimates may not control...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1197–1221.
Published: 01 August 2021
... exclusionary tone and focus on renter characteristics, predominate in advertisements in majority non-White neighborhoods. In contrast, words in advertisements in majority White neighborhoods convey a more neutral or welcoming tone and a focus on the general rental application process; examples include...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (2): 653–674.
Published: 13 March 2020
... of a displacement process by which economically disadvantaged residents are forcibly mobile, and economically advantaged and White locals rebuild rather than relocate. To make sense of demographic change after natural hazards, I advance an unequal replacement of social vulnerability framework that considers hazard...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2024) 61 (3): 711–735.
Published: 01 June 2024
... States has changed over time. Identifying the timing of such change across states can offer insights into the underlying processes that generate Black–White inequality. In this study, we use integrated nested Laplace approximation models to simultaneously account for spatial and temporal features...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1997) 34 (3): 429–441.
Published: 01 August 1997
... disappeared by the early 1980s. According to chi-square tests, the contextual indepen- dent variables of interest add considerable power to all the African American models (p < .001), but to none ofthe white models (p < .05). Clearly the structural processes considered exert a much stronger impact on African...