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Wage Penalty

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Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (5): 1663–1680.
Published: 25 September 2018
...Rebecca Glauber Abstract Many studies have shown that women pay a wage penalty for motherhood, whereas men earn a wage premium for fatherhood. A few recent studies have used quantile regression to explore differences in the penalties across the wage distribution. The current study builds...
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Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 341–369.
Published: 01 May 2009
..., and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ...
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (1): 1–21.
Published: 26 October 2011
...Jeremy Staff; Jeylan T. Mortimer Abstract Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research...
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Journal Article
Demography (2024) 61 (2): 231–250.
Published: 01 April 2024
...Wei-hsin Yu; Janet Chen-Lan Kuo Abstract U.S. women's age at first birth has increased substantially. Yet, little research has considered how this changing behavior may have affected the motherhood pay penalty, or the wage decrease with a child's arrival, experienced by the current generation...
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Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (1): 201–226.
Published: 01 February 2023
... are a source of this inequality. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine nativity differences in the incidence and wage penalty of education–occupation mismatch among highly educated workers. The results demonstrate that high-skilled immigrants, especially those...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1999) 36 (2): 233–246.
Published: 01 May 1999
..., with employers passing the costs and risks of unauthorized hiring on to the workers. Although available data do not permit us to eliminate competing explanations entirely, limited controls suggest that the post-IRCA wage penalty against undocumented migrants did not stem from an expansion of the immigrant labor...
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (3): 1063–1088.
Published: 22 June 2020
... penalty these women had previously experienced. In sum, I document changes in the occupational sorting behavior of women as well as shifts in occupation-level reward mechanisms that have had a profound impact on the state of inequality between working women. Occupational segregation Gender Wage...
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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (1): 33–60.
Published: 29 January 2020
..., given that employment pathways are differently distributed by gender—with men being more likely than women to hold steady, sustained employment throughout their careers—theories on gender and employment argue that the relative wage payoffs or penalties to following certain pathways could themselves...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (1): 247–272.
Published: 01 February 2021
... ). As a result of the wage penalty associated with motherhood and the wage premium tied to fatherhood, the gender pay gap widens as men and women move through the life course. Parenthood is therefore a key contributor to gender inequality ( Angelov et al. 2016 ; England 2005 ). Corresponding...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1275–1300.
Published: 01 August 2021
... or increase when they become fathers ( Killewald 2013 ; Lundberg and Rose 2002 ), women experience a substantial motherhood wage penalty ( Avellar and Smock 2003 ; Jee et al. 2019 ). Some of the motherhood wage penalty can be explained by differences in work experience, part-time hours, and occupational...
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Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (3): 469–492.
Published: 01 August 2009
... ). Changes in the Wage Structure and Earnings Inequality . In O. Ashenfelter , & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics (pp. 1463 – 55 ). New York : North-Holland . Kim M. ( 2002 ). Has the Race Penalty for Black Women Disappeared in the United States? . Feminist...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1301–1325.
Published: 01 August 2021
... 2001 ; England et al. 2016 ; Florian 2018 ; Waldfogel 1997 ; Wilde et al. 2010 ). Evidence also suggests that the wage penalty is associated with skill ( Wilde et al. 2010 ), although this association holds for White women but not Black women ( England et al. 2016 ). Thus, to address possible...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (5): 1773–1793.
Published: 06 September 2017
... the literature on “motherhood wage penalties” by introducing other career measures that are not conditional on employment, and we track these career effects over the whole 40-year course, enabling us to estimate whether there is the same catching-up effect on career measures as there seems to be on labor supply...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1249–1274.
Published: 01 August 2021
... and Frech 2016 ; Killewald and Zhou 2019 ; Lu et al. 2017 ; Lundberg and Rose 2002 ; Musick et al. 2020 ). Reductions in mothers' cumulative work experience due to employment gaps, in turn, account for a large portion of both the motherhood wage penalty and gender wage gap ( Aisenbrey et al. 2009...
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Published: 01 April 2024
Fig. 5 Full and base algorithm wage gaps, wage gap difference, Medicaid group wage gap, and Medicaid group weight. This figure shows estimates of the wage penalty between legal and undocumented immigrants as in Borjas and Cassidy (2019) . We regress (separately in each year) the log hourly wage More
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (6): 2331–2349.
Published: 30 October 2017
... (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement no. 312290 for the GENDERBALL project. The authors thank Gray Swicegood as well as the anonymous reviewers for many useful comments and suggestions. References Anderson D. J. , Binder M. , & Krause K. ( 2002 ). The motherhood wage penalty...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (3): 1093–1117.
Published: 01 June 2021
... in the motherhood wage penalty and fatherhood wage premium also have the potential to contribute to increases in spouses' economic homogamy, although evidence about change over time is relatively weak. Some studies showed that motherhood wage penalties—which capture effects of work interruptions, job changes...
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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (3): 1007–1034.
Published: 23 April 2020
... and earnings remain closely related to their family role. Mothers’ employment rates and wages lag those of men and childless women, even when work experience is controlled for. This “motherhood (earnings) penalty” is a well-established finding in many Western countries (e.g., Correll et al. 2007 ; Harkness...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (1): 93–118.
Published: 04 January 2017
... participation, however, is a persistent “motherhood penalty” in wages (Budig and England 2001 ; Waldfogel 1997 ), which is in sharp contrast with a “fatherhood premium” (Budig 2014 ; Killewald 2013 ). Among the most important sources of this penalty is changing employment behavior after childbirth...
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Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1197–1216.
Published: 24 January 2013
... Budig , M. J. , & England , P. ( 2001 ). The wage penalty for motherhood . American Sociological Review , 66 , 204 – 225 . 10.2307/2657415 Budig , M. J. , & Hodges , M. J. ( 2010 ). Differences in disadvantage: Variations in motherhood penalty across white women’s...
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