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Speci Cation

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Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (4): 895–921.
Published: 01 November 2010
... 1986; Stevenson 2007), we also use a speci¿ cation that replaces the income variables with predicted ver- sions. Replacing actual labor income with its predicted value is also in the spirit of Pollak s (2005) argument that wage rates are preferred to actual earnings as measures of bargain- ing power...
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 341–369.
Published: 01 May 2009
... in a study by Zie e (2004), who showed persistent wage losses of German mothers on the order of 5% per year of work interruption. At the same time, even though all the preceding studies were based on longitudinal data, differences in target populations, measurement, and model speci cation render...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (1): 227–247.
Published: 01 February 2010
... to account for the con- tribution of multiple observations from individuals to the data set. Speci¿ cation 1 reports estimates for the dummy variable for black and the business cycle control from a model that also includes measures of age and its square, marital sta- tus, education, occupation, industry...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 865–881.
Published: 01 November 2007
... assimilate economically. Using panel data and an individual xed- effect speci cation, I nd evidence indicating rapid economic assimilation, on the order of an average increase in earnings of 12% 13% during the 12-month survey period. Results indicate partial support for Duleep and Regets Immigrant...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (1): 35–57.
Published: 01 February 2007
...-sectional data are biased toward zero. Effects are largest for children whose mothers died and, in a novel finding, for those with low baseline academic performance. 13 1 2011 © Population Association of America 2007 2007 Maternal Death Speci Cation School Participation Orphan Status...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 829–848.
Published: 01 November 2007
...). The primary proxy for macroeconomic conditions is the annual state unemployment rate for the civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged 16 and older. Data are from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) database (Bureau of Labor Statistics 1979 1998). Most speci cations control for the fraction...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (1): 163–180.
Published: 01 February 2010
... outcome (columns 1 and 3) control only for age and gender. The second pair of regressions (columns 2 and 4) include the full set of baseline control variables, identical to those used in the next section (for long-run impacts). For both speci¿ cations, we ¿ nd that future orphanhood is not correlated...
Journal Article
Demography (2005) 42 (4): 769–790.
Published: 01 November 2005
... in uence of migration networks on PROGRESA. The control variables in all the speci cations include a vector of individual and house- hold variables (e.g., education, age of household head, gender of household head) that con- trol for different prospects at the destination points in terms of potential...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (1): 97–124.
Published: 01 February 2010
... or one of its components) instead of coef¿ cients, which are often dif¿ cult to interpret in the complex model speci¿ cations considered here. This aspect of the analysis entails estimation of the effects of one predictor variable on TFR or one of its components while holding other predictor variables...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (4): 875–883.
Published: 01 November 2008
... or with missing data on how and when a rst marriage ended. We also restrict the sample to respondents under 90 years of age and omit respondents with 2. We also examine alternative nonlinear, piecewise-spline speci cations of this interaction (results not reported), with our results robust across...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (1): 31–53.
Published: 01 February 2008
... to be particularly sensitive to changes in mothers’ hours of work. 13 1 2011 © Population Association of America 2008 2008 Maternal Employment School Outcome Speci Cation School Participation Maternal Work References Allen K. , & Kirby M. ( 2000 ). Unfinished Business...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (Suppl 1): S131–S149.
Published: 01 March 2010
.... First, taken on its own, this method masks the results of natural experiments like those discussed earlier. Second, in the simple speci¿ cation I have used, the effect of covariates is presumed to be the same in all countries. The results based on adjusted data allow the effects of the covariates...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (2): 303–322.
Published: 01 May 2008
... differences in HIV epidemic start dates or cultural norms. I test whether a linear speci cation differs across countries, separately for education and wealth (results not shown but available upon re- quest). An F test of equality for country-speci c education coef cients suggests that I can 7. I exclude...
Journal Article
Demography (2006) 43 (2): 309–335.
Published: 01 May 2006
... are not changed when year effects are included. We refer to the more general speci cation in the last panel of Table 2 as our primary speci cation. Primary Speci cation We now look speci cally at the parameter estimates of this speci cation. Consistent with the social work and policy literatures discussed...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (3): 719–733.
Published: 01 August 2010
... that depends only on the value of the covariates, exp(X(t The proportional hazard model is semiparametric, and the baseline hazard (h0(t)) does not need to be speci¿ ed but is estimated nonparametrically. Furthermore, notice that there is no unobserved heterogeneity in this speci¿ cation. Therefore, the coef...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (3): 623–647.
Published: 01 August 2007
... Status, Work Effort, and Wage Rates 625 Authors estimating the effect of marriage on wages have tried to capture unobserved heterogeneity with panel data and speci cations involving individual-speci c xed effects and/or random effects. In one application examining the log of wage rates of young white...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (4): 817–827.
Published: 01 November 2008
..., fully interacted, that create coef cient vector 7), are included in all regressions to control for factors that may be correlated with the policy as well as the birthrate. The baseline speci cation compares different-aged individuals within states using age, state, year, and state-year xed effects...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (4): 845–868.
Published: 01 November 2010
...- ous speci¿ cation. To ensure that study ¿ ndings are not an artifact of how the typology was created, I also ran all models with continuous speci¿ cations of the percentage minority and migration ratio. Findings are remarkably similar across speci¿ cations, strengthening 6. For a discussion...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (4): 829–849.
Published: 01 November 2008
.... As might be expected, the wife-only couples are, on average, the youngest in the sample. Comparatively, the husband-only couples are, on average, the oldest in the sample. The empirical speci cations in this article treat spouse s occupation as exogenous. This is, of course, a strong assumption...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (1): 145–162.
Published: 01 February 2010
... and family characteristics (Xif) that inÀ uence parental investments (e.g., income and mother s marital status). These parental investments may take the form of money or time. A linear econometric speci¿ cation of this model might take the following form: Iif = eif 1 + g(e-if) 2 + Xif + f + i + if , (1...