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Replacement

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Journal Article
Demography (1988) 25 (1): 141–144.
Published: 01 February 1988
...Andrew Mason Abstract This article is intended to clarify two aspects of Leibenstein’s replacement effect that have not been adequately addressed in print. First, formal analysis of the replacement effect demonstrates that it is not determined by the quality of entering and departing workers alone...
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (4): 519–536.
Published: 01 November 1984
... proportion of these deaths that are replaced by a subsequent birth. In this paper we estimate the parameters of the assumed distributions of these three events using a minimum distance estimation model and data from the 1970 Brazilian census. The parameter estimates are shown to be similar to those obtained...
Journal Article
Demography (1976) 13 (4): 513–519.
Published: 01 November 1976
... * = be 0 0 (1 - rμ /2), where μ is the average age at childbearing of the initial stable population. 26 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1976 1976 Stationary Population Stable Population Fertility Decline Ultimate Population Bare Replacement References Keyfitz...
Journal Article
Demography (1992) 29 (4): 595–612.
Published: 01 November 1992
...Carl P. Schmertmann Abstract A sustained regime of low fertility plus immigration yields an unusual kind of stationary population. The author demonstrates that all stationary populations have a common structure, and that the familiar replacement-level fertility population is the youngest among the...
Journal Article
Demography (1990) 27 (1): 121–129.
Published: 01 February 1990
...S. Mitra Abstract The long-term demographic effects of immigration on a population experiencing below-replacement fertility are studied by assuming that the size and age composition of the immigrant population do not change over time. The size of the first-generation immigrant population becomes...
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Published: 29 January 2018
Fig. 2 Trends in employment, wages, and benefit replacement rates More
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Published: 09 March 2012
Fig. 1 The association between universal replacement rate and single-mother poverty rate across 18 affluent Western democracies circa 2000 ( r = –.64) More
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Published: 28 July 2017
Fig. 3 The sequence of element replacement in the four vectors in the direction B→b→a→A More
Journal Article
Demography (1983) 20 (3): 391–405.
Published: 01 August 1983
...James Trussell; Randall Olsen Abstract In a previous issue of this journal, Olsen proposed a technique for quantifying the fertility response to child mortality. To estimate the extent of child replacement, one needs data only on the number of children ever born and the number of child deaths for...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 771–784.
Published: 01 November 2007
... the time to subsequent conception if the death occurs within a given interval, representing the combined effect of biological and volitional replacement. The time to conception is also reduced if a childhood death occurs during a prior birth interval, a finding that signifies an effect of volitional...
Journal Article
Demography (1971) 8 (1): 71–80.
Published: 01 February 1971
...Nathan Keyfitz Abstract If age-specific birth rates drop immediately to the level of bare replacement the ultimate stationary number of a population will be given by (9): multiplied by the present number, where b is the birth rate, r the rate of increase, the expectation of life, and R 0 the Net...
Journal Article
Demography (1982) 19 (1): 125–133.
Published: 01 February 1982
...Thomas J. Espenshade; Leon F. Bouvier; W. Brian Arthur Abstract This paper reports on work aimed at extending stable population theory to include immigration. Its central finding is that, as long as fertility is below replacement, a constant number and age distribution of immigrants (with fixed...
Journal Article
Demography (1968) 5 (1): 226–248.
Published: 01 March 1968
... educational enrollment rates, (b) constant fertility—improving educational enrollment rates, (c) declining fertility—constant educational enrollment rates, and (d) declining fertility—improving educational enrollment rates. The growth, age structure, replacement, and educational attainment rates of the labor...
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (3): 815–839.
Published: 12 July 2011
... fall below replacement level. It models the decline in TFR as the sum of two logistic functions that depend on the current TFR level, and a random term. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to project future TFR based on both the country’s TFR history and the pattern of all countries. It is estimated...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1987) 24 (3): 431–438.
Published: 01 August 1987
...Pietro Cerone Abstract The paper extends stable population theory to include a constant stream of immigration. Previous attempts at tackling the problem have either restricted themselves to a below-replacement native population or else used an approach that does not produce the values of all of the...
Journal Article
Demography (1977) 14 (4): 581–590.
Published: 01 November 1977
...Anne D. Williams Abstract Recent studies of the impact of child mortality on children ever born have used the “replacement factor” to measure mortality. When microlevel data are used, however, use of the replacement factor (or other variables which are nonlinear in the family’s experienced child...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1579–1602.
Published: 28 July 2017
...Fig. 3 The sequence of element replacement in the four vectors in the direction B→b→a→A ...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2003) 40 (4): 589–603.
Published: 01 November 2003
...S. Philip Morgan Abstract Nearly half of the world’s population in 2000 lived in countries with fertility rates at or below replacement level, and nearly all countries will reach low fertility levels in the next two decades. Concerns about low fertility, fertility that is well below replacement...
Journal Article
Demography (1967) 4 (2): 657–672.
Published: 01 June 1967
... contrasting patterns can be detected. On one side stands the very low fertility of the North and of the Center, mostly below replacement in the last thirty years;on the other, the still high fertility of the South. In the North and in the Center, where the decline started earlier, fertility has fallen well...
Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (3): 447–454.
Published: 01 August 1975
... resulting birth trajectory. Exact expressions are also found for the long-time asymptotic behavior of both the birth trajectory and the total population size when the shift in reproductive behavior is to bare replacement level. Accurate approximations to these asymptotic results are then derived and used to...