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Potential outcomes

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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (3): 927–951.
Published: 19 May 2020
... migration issues. 20 3 2020 19 5 2020 © Population Association of America 2020 2020 Son preference Fertility decisions Potential outcomes Decisions favoring sons within a family can take various forms. First, parents may invest less time and resources in daughters. Parents...
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Journal Article
Demography (1995) 32 (1): 111–131.
Published: 01 February 1995
... in demographic research. This paper helps to fill this gap. It describes a simple analytic framework for estimating the effects of explanatory variables on discrete outcomes, which controls for the potential endogeneity of explanatory variables. It also discusses tests for exogeneity and joint determination...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (2): 499–526.
Published: 01 April 2021
... and consider local weather and environmental conditions associated with the three most frequently posited potential drivers of adverse health outcomes: disease (malaria), heat stress, and food insecurity. We focus this study on Mali, where seasonal trends facilitate the use of measures specifically designed...
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Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (2): 393–424.
Published: 25 January 2012
... City and in New Orleans between 2003 and 2005. The study investigates the long-term impact of international migration on Vietnamese mental health, and the potential mediating effects of social networks and physical health on these migration-related outcomes. The results reveal both mental health...
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Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (1): 233–257.
Published: 21 January 2015
... on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well...
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Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (1): 37–49.
Published: 01 February 2022
... pregnancies has little empirical support, but that policy focused on increasing reproductive autonomy and maternal well-being has the potential to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2022 The Authors 2022 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0...
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Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (5): 1631–1654.
Published: 01 October 2022
... 2021 ). Some studies on the effect of extreme heat on birth outcomes investigated potential variation across population subgroups. For example, in their seminal work, Deschênes et al. (2009) found differences across racial groups in the United States. Other studies found differences...
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Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (2): 351–377.
Published: 01 April 2023
...Jason M. Fletcher; Michal Engelman; Norman J. Johnson; Jahn Hakes; Alberto Palloni Abstract A rich literature shows that early-life conditions shape later-life outcomes, including health and migration events. However, analyses of geographic disparities in mortality outcomes focus almost exclusively...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (5): 1817–1841.
Published: 01 October 2021
...Michael J. Thomas; Lars Dommermuth Abstract Past research has found that relations to nonresident family can influence individual fertility and migration behaviors separately. However, fertility and migration outcomes may also be interrelated, suggesting potential links across all three demographic...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (3): 591–617.
Published: 01 August 2008
..., and recipients, migrant social capital leads to differential migration outcomes for individuals and divergent cumulative migration patterns in communities. 13 1 2011 © Population Association of America 2008 2008 Social Capital Potential Migrant Migration Decision Destination Diversity...
Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (6): 2229–2254.
Published: 08 November 2014
... euphemism in Accra for induced abortion, was asked only if the outcome of the pregnancy was indicated as a lost birth. However, stigma of abortion is quite high in Ghana, resulting in potentially large measurement error owing to reporting bias. We thus also combine miscarriage and abortion for one estimate...
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Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (1): 129–141.
Published: 01 February 1975
...R. G. Potter; K. Ford; B. Moots Abstract Because of their similar timing in pregnancy, spontaneous and induced abortions can be viewed as competing outcomes. Some intended abortion operations are anticipated by earlier miscarriages while some potential miscarriages are forestalled by earlier...
Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (4): 1139–1161.
Published: 01 August 2023
... of receiving the treatment given R i —but not necessarily a jump from 0 to 1, as in a sharp RD. Let Y i ( 1 ) and Y i ( 0 ) denote the potential cognitive outcomes experienced in the presence and absence of the treatment, respectively. Let Z i denote exposure...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (6): 2265–2289.
Published: 01 December 2021
... stratifying dimensions such as health or where they live, the ability of college to equalize later life outcomes may have been overstated by prior work. Future research that identifies the mechanisms responsible for the findings presented here and explores other potential stratifying outcomes will help us...
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Journal Article
Demography (2024) 61 (1): 1–14.
Published: 01 February 2024
.... However, the extent to which this issue is problematic depends on the study's aims and, for studies comparing outcomes by only-child status, the age at which the outcome is measured. Finally, we examine potential variation in the prevalence and characteristics of the group across derivations...
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Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (1): 3–25.
Published: 12 December 2013
...Christine A. Bachrach Abstract Demography and culture have had a long but ambivalent relationship. Cultural influences are widely recognized as important for demographic outcomes but are often “backgrounded” in demographic research. I argue that progress toward a more successful integration...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (2): 773–784.
Published: 01 April 2021
... methods to estimate causal effects are based on two components: (1) a model for the outcomes based on covariates that characterize potential exposures, and (2) a model for the selectivity of the potential exposures based on the covariates. Selectivity processes are complex and generally are poorly...
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Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 687–703.
Published: 01 November 2007
... with the potential to in uence health outcomes. Indeed, to the extent that there is a choice, when choosing a neighborhood, people may anticipate the consequences of living there. That school districting affects the neighborhoods in which parents choose to live is accepted as fact among real estate agents...
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (4): 785–803.
Published: 01 November 2009
...James M. Raymo; Miho Iwasawa; Larry Bumpass Abstract This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have...
Journal Article
Demography (2000) 37 (1): 17–27.
Published: 01 February 2000
... to be estimated, which pays due respect to the role of children’s characteristics in determining the residency outcome. The estimated earnings potentials of the parents and their children are included as explanatory variables but are not found to be important determinants of coresidency. THE RESIDENCY DECISION...