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Period Effect

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Journal Article
Demography (1994) 31 (2): 271–296.
Published: 01 May 1994
...Timothy B. Gage Abstract The trends in 13 cause of death categories are examined with respect to expectation of life, sex differences, and period effects while misclassification of cause of death is controlled. The results suggest that as mortality declines, 1) the increasingly U-shaped age pattern...
Journal Article
Demography (1977) 14 (1): 33–42.
Published: 01 February 1977
...George Farkas Abstract The net effects of birth cohort, age, and period upon the employment of white women, 1957–1968, are estimated by a regression analysis of data from the Social Security Administration’s continuous work history file. By conceptualizing period-specific effects as those...
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Published: 09 March 2017
Fig. 7 Varying the effect sizes of period from 0 % to 100 % of the total APC effect in 20 % increments while keeping cohort effect constant (upper), varying the effect sizes of cohort from 0 % to 100 % of the total APC effect in 20 % increments while keeping period effect constant (lower). When More
Journal Article
Demography (2001) 38 (4): 551–561.
Published: 01 November 2001
...Diane S. Lauderdale Abstract Previous studies have found that educational differences in mortality are weaker among the elderly. In this study I examine whether either cohort or period effects may have influenced the interpretation of age effects. Six 10-year birth cohorts are followed over 30...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (5): 1975–2004.
Published: 28 August 2019
...Ethan Fosse; Christopher Winship Abstract For more than a century, researchers from a wide range of disciplines have sought to estimate the unique contributions of age, period, and cohort (APC) effects on a variety of outcomes. A key obstacle to these efforts is the linear dependence among...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2004) 41 (4): 801–819.
Published: 01 November 2004
...Robert Schoen Abstract Low fertility levels and later childbearing in many developed countries have reinvigorated the debate between period and cohort perspectives on fertility and on the meaningfulness of the period total fertility rate (TFR). Here, fertility-timing effects are defined as level...
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Published: 17 October 2013
Fig. 1 Equivalent patterns of age, period, and cohort effects. Rotating the period effects in a certain direction with a corresponding rotation of age and cohort effects in the opposite direction does not affect the model fit More
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Published: 28 August 2019
Fig. 4 Monotone constraints on nonlinear effects of age and period. The dashed lines in panels a and c show simulated nonlinearities for age and period. The solid line in panel c reflects the assumption that α = 2, which is the minimum age slope required for a monotonically increasing overall More
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Published: 28 August 2019
Fig. 6 2D-APC graphs with bounds on age and period linear effects: prostate cancer incidence. Panel a gives the 2D-APC graph of the solution line with θ 1 = 7.344 and θ 2 = 1.473. Panel b shows the bounds for 8.104 ≤ α < + ∞, reflecting the assumption that the overall age effect More
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Published: 01 October 2021
Fig. 4 Combined effects of prenatal and postnatal period and birth interval with younger sibling. The reference category is a birth interval of 2–29 months with previous sibling, perinatal period of 6 months after birth. More
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Published: 28 August 2019
Fig. 5 2D-APC graphs with bounds on age and period linear effects. Panel a gives the 2D-APC graph of the solution line for simulated data with θ 1 = 2 and θ 2 = 1. Panel b shows the bounds for 2 ≤ α < + ∞, reflecting the assumption that the overall age effect is monotonically increasing More
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Published: 23 June 2012
Fig. 4 HAPC-CCREM estimates of random period and cohort effects of U.S. black and white male and female mortality rates, NHIS-LMF 1986–2006 More
Journal Article
Demography (1982) 19 (4): 459–479.
Published: 01 November 1982
... to main effects of the three indexing variables, is presented as a means of capturing the transitory period “shocks” which differentially influence participation odds for young and old age groups. Findings show that younger cohorts of nonblack men, nonblack women, and black women have greater “intrinsic...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (1): 321–344.
Published: 01 February 2021
... at increasingly younger ages have been contributing to more years of childless life compared with those in Sweden, (2) the United States continues to represent an exception among the high-income countries with a low expectation for childless life of women, and (3) Hungary experienced a strong period effect...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (4): 459–473.
Published: 01 November 1984
... literacy (or lagged life expectancy), economic and family planning program development, as well as measures that control period effects . 9 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1984 1984 Family Planning Latin American Country Demographic Transition Fertility Decline Family...
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Published: 09 March 2017
Fig. 3 Causal directed acyclic graph when the age effect (δ 1 ) and cohort effect (δ 2 ) are estimated directly, and the period effect is estimated using mediators as per Pearl’s front-door criterion, while one period mediator is unmeasured. Left: effect estimates if M 2 is measured, and P More
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (6): 2025–2044.
Published: 02 November 2018
..., including sample size, period effects, and regional or cultural factors that may be important keys to understanding patterns of old-age mortality. I introduce mortfit , a freely available R package that enables researchers to extend the analysis to other models, age ranges, and data sources. 1 10 2018...
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Includes: Supplementary data
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Published: 09 March 2017
Fig. 1 Causal directed acyclic graph, showing the age effect (α*), cohort effect (θ*), and the period effect (the β*s). The bold arrows represent deterministic relationships, and the nonbold arrows represent stochastic relationships More
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Published: 28 August 2019
that the overall age effect is monotonically increasing from ages 40 to 85 and the overall period effect is non-negative. Shaded areas indicate the range of estimates, and the dashed lines denote the average of the upper and lower bounds for age, period, and cohort. Dashed lines correspond to α = 9.955, π = –2.611 More
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Published: 21 November 2017
segregation after controlling for grade effects. Period effects are based on period-specific predictions from the APC model, with cohorts and grades held constant; cohort and grade effects are calculated similarly. All intercepts are set to 0 to facilitate comparison of trends More