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Motherhood penalty

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Published: 01 August 2023
Fig. 2 Predicted motherhood penalty illustrated for women with a first birth separately for women whose child was not diagnosed with cancer and for women whose firstborn was diagnosed with cancer at age 2. The control group for these two groups is women diagnosed with ICD-10 code N97 (Female More
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1275–1300.
Published: 01 August 2021
... or increase when they become fathers ( Killewald 2013 ; Lundberg and Rose 2002 ), women experience a substantial motherhood wage penalty ( Avellar and Smock 2003 ; Jee et al. 2019 ). Some of the motherhood wage penalty can be explained by differences in work experience, part-time hours, and occupational...
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Includes: Supplementary data
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Published: 25 September 2018
Fig. 1 Adjusted motherhood penalty for low, middle, and high earners More
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (1): 247–272.
Published: 01 February 2021
... Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and fixed-effects models, we examine how being a mother or father is linked to earnings growth within and across firms. We find that women's pay decreases as they become mothers and that the across-employer motherhood penalty is larger than the within-employer penalty...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2024) 61 (2): 231–250.
Published: 01 April 2024
...Wei-hsin Yu; Janet Chen-Lan Kuo Abstract U.S. women's age at first birth has increased substantially. Yet, little research has considered how this changing behavior may have affected the motherhood pay penalty, or the wage decrease with a child's arrival, experienced by the current generation...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (5): 1663–1680.
Published: 25 September 2018
...Fig. 1 Adjusted motherhood penalty for low, middle, and high earners ...
FIGURES
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 341–369.
Published: 01 May 2009
..., and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ...
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (1): 1–21.
Published: 26 October 2011
... examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (6): 2331–2349.
Published: 30 October 2017
... pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women’s earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (4): 1005–1029.
Published: 01 August 2023
...Fig. 2 Predicted motherhood penalty illustrated for women with a first birth separately for women whose child was not diagnosed with cancer and for women whose firstborn was diagnosed with cancer at age 2. The control group for these two groups is women diagnosed with ICD-10 code N97 (Female...
FIGURES
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (4): 1377–1402.
Published: 01 August 2022
...Susan Harkness Abstract This study examines how motherhood earnings penalties in combination with the cost of partner absence affect single mothers' economic well-being. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for 1990–2015 and fixed-effects models with individual-specific...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1223–1248.
Published: 01 August 2021
... significantly reduces the motherhood employment penalty among high-SES women but not among low-SES women. Unequal rates of mother-daughter employment transmission by SES can account for 36% of growing inequality in maternal employment across SES groups, observed in the Current Population Survey, between 1999...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (3): 1007–1034.
Published: 23 April 2020
...Joanne S. Muller; Nicole Hiekel; Aart C. Liefbroer Abstract The “motherhood earnings penalty” is a well-established finding in many Western countries. However, a divide between mothers and nonmothers might oversimplify reality given that the family life course has diversified over the last decades...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1301–1325.
Published: 01 August 2021
...). Planned fertility has been associated with socioeconomic advantage ( Mosher et al. 2012 ; Musick et al. 2009 ), so if H1 is correct—that planning reduces motherhood penalties—then unplanned fertility could compound economic inequality. In contrast, H2 hinges on women's knowledge that employers, the state...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (5): 1601–1626.
Published: 10 September 2015
... by the presence or absence of children among the second generation. The general pattern in the work and family literature indicates that women with children experience a “motherhood penalty,” in which they earn less than similar women without children (England 2000 ). This penalty is only partially accounted...
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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (1): 33–60.
Published: 29 January 2020
...) a motherhood wage penalty/fatherhood wage premium, such that, on average, mothers earn less than both childless women and fathers, and fathers earn more than childless men (Blau and Kahn 2017 ; Budig and England 2001 ; Gough and Noonan 2013 ; Hodges and Budig 2010 ). Black and Hispanic men earn less...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (1): 93–118.
Published: 04 January 2017
... where work and family circumstances are subject to greater change. Our findings further our understanding of income inequality. First, growing evidence suggests that white women bear a larger motherhood penalty than nonwhites (Budig and England 2001 ; Glauber 2007 ; Waldfogel 1997 ). Our results...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (3): 1093–1117.
Published: 01 June 2021
... in the motherhood wage penalty and fatherhood wage premium also have the potential to contribute to increases in spouses' economic homogamy, although evidence about change over time is relatively weak. Some studies showed that motherhood wage penalties—which capture effects of work interruptions, job changes...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (2): 787–812.
Published: 01 April 2022
... of leave also implies that policy expansions allowed them to spend more time recovering from childbirth and caring for their newborns. These findings are consistent with the literature on the motherhood penalty; higher skilled and higher earning mothers minimized losses in career continuity. Finally...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1197–1216.
Published: 24 January 2013
...-partnered women. Instead, the results show that women’s earnings decline during the first years of partnership compared with their prepartnership earnings, which to a large extent is related to bearing and rearing children—that is, the “motherhood penalty” (e.g., Budig and England 2001 ). Table  3 also...
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