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Motherhood

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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1301–1325.
Published: 01 August 2021
... substantially when they transition to motherhood. About one-third of births are unintended, and it is unknown whether the impact of motherhood on employment, hours, and wages is smaller for women who planned their transition into motherhood compared with those who did not. To explore this, we examine fixed...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 341–369.
Published: 01 May 2009
...Markus Gangl; Andrea Ziefle Abstract Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (1): 247–272.
Published: 01 February 2021
... Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and fixed-effects models, we examine how being a mother or father is linked to earnings growth within and across firms. We find that women's pay decreases as they become mothers and that the across-employer motherhood penalty is larger than the within-employer penalty...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1401–1421.
Published: 01 August 2021
...Steve Muchiri Abstract Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya, have introduced free/subsidized secondary education. This paper examines the role of these free/subsidized education policies on teenage motherhood. To identify the causal effect, I exploit the timing of a national...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (4): 1275–1300.
Published: 01 August 2021
... employer perceptions of conflicts between motherhood and job performance. This study reports results from an original field experiment in which 2,210 fictitious applications were submitted to low-wage service and professional/managerial job openings across six U.S. cities, experimentally manipulating...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1999) 36 (3): 369–376.
Published: 01 August 1999
...Michael S. Rendall Abstract I analyze the prevalence of single motherhood among black and non-Hispanic white women in terms of differences in entry and exit. Higher initial entry rates among black women, especially through unpartnered childbearing, account for slightly more than half the difference...
Journal Article
Demography (1999) 36 (2): 205–217.
Published: 01 May 1999
... Press . LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS OF AMERICAN CHILDREN: PARENTAL COHABITATION, MARRIAGE, AND SINGLE MOTHERHOOD· DEBORAH ROEMPKE GRAEFE AND DANIEL T. LICHTER We examine the life course transitions into and from families headed by unmarried cohabiting couples for a recent cohort of American children...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (1): 261–284.
Published: 05 December 2018
...Sarah A. Font; Maria Cancian; Lawrence M. Berger Abstract Early childbearing is associated with a host of educational and economic disruptions for teenage girls and increased risk of adverse outcomes for their children. Low-income, maltreated, and foster youth have a higher risk of teen motherhood...
Journal Article
Demography (1989) 26 (2): 279–286.
Published: 01 May 1989
... . )emography, Vol. 26, No.2, May 1989 Jnmarried Motherhood: Recent Trends, Composition, and Black-White Differences .arry Bumpass and Sara Mclanahan Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 The National Survey of Family Growth (1982) is used...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (5): 1521–1549.
Published: 10 July 2013
...Shelley Clark; Dana Hamplová Abstract Single motherhood in sub-Saharan Africa has received surprisingly little attention, although it is widespread and has critical implications for children’s well-being. Using survival analysis techniques, we estimate the probability of becoming a single mother...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1451–1475.
Published: 05 July 2017
... influenced by girls’ preferences about, and opportunities for, schooling and work (Barber 2001b ; Presser 2001 ). Although in practice women can and do combine school, work, and motherhood, to do so presents substantial financial and logistical challenges (Chaudry 2004 ; Damaske 2011 ). If an adolescent...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (6): 2331–2349.
Published: 30 October 2017
... pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women’s earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (5): 1663–1680.
Published: 25 September 2018
...Rebecca Glauber Abstract Many studies have shown that women pay a wage penalty for motherhood, whereas men earn a wage premium for fatherhood. A few recent studies have used quantile regression to explore differences in the penalties across the wage distribution. The current study builds...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (2): 439–458.
Published: 01 May 2010
... the mechanisms relating the field of study with the postponement of motherhood by European college-graduate women aged 20–40. The second round of the European Social Survey is used to assess the impact of four features of study disciplines that are identified as key to reproductive decision making: the expected...
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (1): 1–21.
Published: 26 October 2011
... examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find...
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Published: 12 November 2020
Fig. 1 Predicted probabilities of fatherhood and motherhood at age 43 by desired number of children in adolescence and highest degree completed. Models control for race, Hispanic ethnicity, religiosity in 1979, family structure at age 14, number of siblings, and mother’s education. More
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Published: 12 November 2020
Fig. 3 Predicted probability of fatherhood and motherhood by age at first marriage. Models control for race, Hispanic ethnicity, religiosity in 1979, family structure at age 14, number of siblings, mother’s education, completed education, and number of desired children. More
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Published: 12 November 2020
Fig. 5 Fatherhood and motherhood at age 43 by highest degree and marital timing. Models control for race, Hispanic ethnicity, religiosity in 1979, family structure at age 14, number of siblings, mother’s education, completed education, and number of desired children. More
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Published: 30 October 2017
Fig. 2 Mean relative earnings of women by motherhood status and country. Country codes: AT = Austria, BE = Belgium, BG = Bulgaria, EE = Estonia, ES = Spain, FR = France, GR = Greece, IT = Italy, LT = Lithuania, LU = Luxembourg, LV = Latvia, PL = Poland, PT = Portugal, RO = Romania, SE = Sweden More
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Published: 25 September 2018
Fig. 1 Adjusted motherhood penalty for low, middle, and high earners More