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Mills Ratio

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Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (5): 1729–1750.
Published: 10 September 2015
... of changing selection was diminished further. 8 We omit 25 % of the MR sample because of the marital restriction and another 1 % because of the restriction that spousal income is positive. 7 One exception that would not produce an error in predicted inverse Mills ratios is the case of I h...
Journal Article
Demography (1989) 26 (1): 117–123.
Published: 01 February 1989
... endowments model that he claims is observationally equivalent. The test results favor the Becker formulation. 7 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1989 1989 Permanent Income Downward Bias Mills Ratio Earning Equation Intergenerational Income References Becker , G. S...
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (3): 1011–1036.
Published: 29 June 2012
... :568): 10 (a) Obtain from probit of A on z using all observations. Obtain the inverse Mills ratio , where ϕ and Ф are the density and cumulative function of the standard normal distribution. (b) Use the sample observed in 2006 and estimate the equation: (1) using instruments...
Journal Article
Demography (1990) 27 (1): 1–17.
Published: 01 February 1990
...) that unbiased estimates of equation (1) could be obtained under the assumption that the joint distribution of Uil and UiZ was bivariate normal. His procedure was to fit equation (2) as a probit equation and to compute the inverse of Mill's ratio (Ai) for each woman who gives birth: Ai = f(Qi)/F(Q (3) Here Qi...
Journal Article
Demography (1994) 31 (4): 593–602.
Published: 01 November 1994
... a sample selection model using Heckman's (1979) "two-step' estimation technique. We estimated a probit model over all 6,283 women in the NLSY coding the dependent variable 1 if the woman appeared in our study sample and 0 if she did not. The inverse of the "Mills ratio" (see Greene 1990:744) computed...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (3): 853–880.
Published: 04 December 2012
... probability of living in a patrilocal extended family. This predicted probability was transformed into an inverse Mills ratio, which was used as a control variable for selection in substantive health models. The substantive health models were run jointly with the selection model using a bivariate probit...
Journal Article
Demography (1999) 36 (2): 233–246.
Published: 01 May 1999
... in a given year (the Mills ratio). This instrumental variable was then included as a control in the final equation predicting wages earned by migrants on their most recent U.S. trip. The factors we used to predict the wages of male household heads on their last trip to the United States are displayed...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (1): 181–198.
Published: 01 February 2007
... regression models, we include the inverse Mills ratio (originating for each in- dividual from the estimates of the probit model) as a covariate. We use age and place of residence at Wave 1 only in the sample selection equation in order to avoid identi cation problems (place of residence does not in uence...
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (5): 1903–1928.
Published: 08 September 2020
... for a vector of household independent variables X it measured at the beginning of the interval; γ represents the coefficients for a vector of household trigger events T it  + 1 ; λ it is the inverse Millsratio (IMR), which is the hazard rate of not owning a home and corrects for selection bias...
Journal Article
Demography (2000) 37 (1): 17–27.
Published: 01 February 2000
...) is the inverse mills ratio. Estimates of the vector of coefficients are derived from a probit of labor-force participation on the vector of characteristics, wi, shown in Eq. (9). The system of equations is identified by the inclusion of the variables UNDER10 and MARRIED. The former is the number of children...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (2): 461–488.
Published: 01 May 2008
...). The decline between the two estimates suggests that part of the effect of coparenting is attributable to unobserved characteristics associated with becoming a nonresident father. However, the inverse Mills ratio (lambda) is not statistically signi cant (p = .361). Looking at the estimates based...
Journal Article
Demography (1985) 22 (4): 485–497.
Published: 01 November 1985
... estimating the sample selection process-in this case, remarriage- with a probit function. The results are then used to form the inverse Mill's ratio, denoted as }. for each individual in the sample of unmarried women. Finally, the equation of interest-our equation (1)-can be estimated by OLS with ~ included...
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (3): 1069–1090.
Published: 09 May 2018
... on all potential neighborhood options allows us to retain a high degree of precision in the estimation of the conditional probabilities. Following Ioannides and Zabel ( 2008 ), we transform these linear probabilities to generate correction terms akin to the inverse Mills ratios popularized by Heckman’s...
Journal Article
Demography (1992) 29 (2): 181–198.
Published: 01 May 1992
..., Heckman suggests a two-step procedure. In the first step, the propensity to self-employment or to migration is modeled by using a probit analysis. In the second step, the inverse Mills ratio function of the probit estimates is entered as another variable into an OLS regression model that predicts income...
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (1): 73–99.
Published: 23 February 2011
... (the inverse Millsratio) in the second-stage probit models. Because of the unusually large sample size, however, it is unlikely that any such bias would meaningfully alter my substantive conclusions. 9 A Huber-White sandwich estimator was used in the second stage to correct for heteroskedasticity...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (3): 871–900.
Published: 01 June 2021
... comparable effect estimates, we included studies that produced effect estimates measured in terms of odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs). Finally, any article that reported an estimate of the relationship between unemployment or time-limited employment and fertility was included in the final meta...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1971) 8 (1): 71–80.
Published: 01 February 1971
... dominant model, by which each sex retained its observed mortality, but the male births at any given point in the projection were simply the female multiplied by the observed sex ratio at birth, a number about 1.05. Table 2 shows for two countries how the total population climbs to the stationary over...
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (1): 243–266.
Published: 06 January 2020
... the probability of conceiving (or partner’s conceiving) before October 2005 and calculated the inverse mills ratio (Heckman 1979 ). Subsequently, the selection variable λ was included in the main model. The two-step equations for the primary sibling effects model take the following form: 2 log h i t...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2005) 42 (2): 301–322.
Published: 01 May 2005
..., and Pregnancy Spacing Effects on Spontaneous Fetal Mortality . Social Biology , 36 ( 3–4 ), 186 – 212 . Chahnazarian , A. ( 1988 ). Determinants of the Sex Ratio at Birth: Review of Recent Literature . Social Biology , 35 , 214 – 35 . Coale , A.J. ( 1984 ). Rapid Population Change...
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (2): 459–484.
Published: 15 February 2018
... of the analysis, outcomes are restricted to couples who conduct an interneighborhood move between interviews. Given this, I use a Heckman correction, otherwise known as an inverse Mills ratio, to account for the latent probability of couples being included into the mover category. In the creation of the inverse...
Includes: Supplementary data