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Lower Earning

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Journal Article
Demography (1989) 26 (2): 311–321.
Published: 01 May 1989
... earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1197–1216.
Published: 24 January 2013
... formation. We find that being partnered with someone with more education (hypergamy) is associated with higher earnings, while partnering someone with less education (hypogamy) is associated with lower earnings. However, most of these differences in earnings emerge prior to the time of marriage, implying...
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Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 865–881.
Published: 01 November 2007
... of the expected interaction between skill transferability and skill level when predicting human capital investment decisions. Having more years of education, English proficiency, and lower earnings at the baseline are associated with a higher probability of enrolling in formal school in the United States. Overall...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1155–1176.
Published: 21 December 2012
... in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Demography (1976) 13 (4): 577–580.
Published: 01 November 1976
... for the average monthly wages. Such troughs almost certainly are the result of workers with less education using a rounded year of birth, and, correspondingly, such workers would tend to have lower earnings. 26 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1976 1976 Verse Asian Culture Average...
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (3): 957–982.
Published: 14 June 2011
...-siblings would be qualitatively lower if we had fertility information on only one parent. Complex family structures are more likely for children of parents who are younger or who have low earnings and for those in larger urban areas. Children who have half-siblings on their mother’s side are also more...
FIGURES
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1996) 33 (4): 497–509.
Published: 01 November 1996
...Greg J. Duncan; Johanne Boisjoly; Timothy Smeeding Abstract This paper uses longitudinal data to estimate cohort changes in the earnings trajectories of young adult males. Levels of earnings are uniformly lower for male workers turning 21 between 1980 and 1991 than in 1970–1979, although rates...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (6): 2331–2349.
Published: 30 October 2017
... penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences. Similarly, male unemployment is associated with higher relative earnings for women but cannot explain away the country differences. Against...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1997) 34 (2): 239–249.
Published: 01 May 1997
... by the important finding that compared to earlier immigrant cohorts, recent immigrants started at much lower wages. As such, the high wage growth of immigrants relative to the native born measured in cross-sectional data may simply be the spurious result ofdeclining immigrant earnings ability. In this paper, we...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (3): 619–639.
Published: 01 August 2008
... are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival...
Journal Article
Demography (2016) 53 (1): 85–116.
Published: 11 January 2016
...Christina J. Diaz; Jeremy E. Fiel Abstract Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1998) 35 (4): 465–474.
Published: 01 November 1998
... are lower than those based on interviewer classification. After human capital and labor market controls, whites earn 26% more than browns with interviewer classification but earn only 17% more than browns with self-classification. Black-brown differences hardly change: Blacks earn 13% and 12% less than...
Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (3): 537–553.
Published: 01 August 2008
.... Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (2): 551–570.
Published: 01 April 2021
... of the wage distribution, where men are overrepresented. Thus, the compression of top wages lowers the estimated education premiums of men much more than those of women. To demonstrate the effect of the top earnings in forming the gender gaps in returns to education, we reestimate the education premium in U.S...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (3): 877–899.
Published: 24 April 2018
... disequalizing effect becomes much stronger, especially among lower-income families. It explains more than 80 % of changes in P50/P10 and mean logarithmic deviation and one-half of the poverty increase over the period. Table 5 Primary-order decomposition of changes in the distribution of family earnings...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (1): 25–47.
Published: 29 November 2018
... a considerably lower income and a higher unemployment risk than comparable nondisplaced Germans, even 20 years after being expelled. We extend this literature by investigating mortality outcomes. Using social security records that document the exact date of death and a proxy for pre-retirement lifetime earnings...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (1): 1–21.
Published: 26 October 2011
...Jeremy Staff; Jeylan T. Mortimer Abstract Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1421–1447.
Published: 11 April 2013
... men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (3): 965–988.
Published: 20 June 2012
... of the decline), this study follows marital fertility trends until 1939, when fertility reached lower levels than ever before. Using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN), this study shows that mortality decline, a rise in real income, and unemployment account for the decline...
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Journal Article
Demography (1996) 33 (4): 511–521.
Published: 01 November 1996
...Paula England; Lori L. Reid; Barbara Stanek Kilbourne Abstract We show that individuals in a job with a higher percentage of females earn lower starting wages with an employing organization. This holds true with controls for individuals’ human capital, job demands for skill or difficult working...