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Instrumental Variable

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Journal Article
Demography (1981) 18 (4): 487–509.
Published: 01 November 1981
...N. B. Ryder Abstract Temporal variations in conventional fertility measures reflect the operation of instrumental variables: quantitative and temporal intentions; success in achieving intentions; and reproductive conditions. A set of such variables is described, using data from the 1975 National...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (3): 835–859.
Published: 08 May 2017
... of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1353–1373.
Published: 05 July 2017
..., with data from each country spanning multiple census years. For each country-year, we estimate micro-level instrumental variables models predicting secondary school attainment using number of siblings of the child, instrumented by the sex composition of the first two births in the family. We then analyze...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (5): 1773–1793.
Published: 06 September 2017
...Sara Cools; Simen Markussen; Marte Strøm Abstract We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents’ number of children...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (4): 1317–1341.
Published: 07 June 2018
... cognition may affect decisions relating to retiring. If so, the OLS estimates will be biased. To test for this possibility, instrumental variable (IV) estimation is used. This method requires an IV that is highly correlated with retirement duration but not correlated with cognition. The instrument used...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (3): 689–718.
Published: 01 August 2010
... of marriage and schooling choices? To better understand the true personal and societal consequences, in this article, I use an instrumental variables (IV) approach that takes advantage of variation in state laws regulating the age at which individuals are allowed to marry, drop out of school, and begin work...
Journal Article
Demography (2016) 53 (2): 393–418.
Published: 24 February 2016
... remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force...
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Journal Article
Demography (2016) 53 (5): 1429–1451.
Published: 13 September 2016
... of settlement among the documented, suggesting that some Mexican farm workers adopt new family migration strategies at first migration. Increases in border control are associated with lower likelihood that children reside in Mexico—a finding that holds up to instrumental variable techniques. Our findings...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (1): 23–44.
Published: 28 December 2016
... as an instrumental variable, we estimate the effect of sibship size on adult fertility using high-quality data from Norwegian administrative registers. Our study sample is all firstborns or second-borns during the 1960s in Norwegian families with at least two children (approximately 110,000 men and 104,000 women...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (1): 259–280.
Published: 13 January 2015
... previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (2): 513–542.
Published: 07 March 2015
.... Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find...
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Journal Article
Demography (2002) 39 (1): 199–213.
Published: 01 February 2002
... to determine actual pregnancy status at the time of interviews, which, in turn, was used as an instrumental variable for the retrospective (versus prospective) reporting of pregnancy intention. After correction for selective pregnancy recognition, we found no evidence that the retrospective assessment...
Journal Article
Demography (1998) 35 (2): 159–173.
Published: 01 May 1998
... that the distinction between cooperative and noncooperative awards is important. Finally, our instrumental variables estimates show that the effects of child support persist after we control for unobserved characteristics of fathers and families. 12 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1998 1998...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (6): 2123–2146.
Published: 02 December 2019
... age at menarche as an instrumental variable. Results indicate that a one-year delay in marriage for Ugandan women leads to higher educational attainment (0.5–0.75 years), literacy (10 percentage points), and labor force participation (8 percentage points). I also explore intergenerational effects...
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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (1): 243–266.
Published: 06 January 2020
... the direct influence of network partners or contextual and selection factors, such as shared environment and common background characteristics. The present study uses instrumental variables to improve the identification of social interaction effects on fertility. Using data from the System of social...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (1): 311–336.
Published: 07 December 2016
...). I also examine the longer-term effects of college measured almost three decades later. I find that college freshmen gain substantially less than the 15 pounds rumored to be typical for freshmen. Using difference models, individual-specific fixed-effects models, and instrumental variables models...
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Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1331–1351.
Published: 10 July 2017
... the recent birth of a child is detrimental for the subjective well-being of women at reproductive ages. We address endogeneity issues by using lagged life satisfaction in ordinary least squares regressions, through fixed-effects estimation and the use of instrumental variables. 5 6 2017 10 7 2017...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1221–1250.
Published: 26 July 2017
... through the neighborhood effects that influence children growing up. For white families, there is less support for the legacy effects of segregation. The findings are supported by a comprehensive mediation analysis that provides a formal sensitivity analysis, deploys an instrumental variable, and assesses...
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Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (3): 841–855.
Published: 28 April 2012
... restriction violation in instrumental variable (IV) regression models. We suggest that previous research, which has shown that Vietnam-era veterans experienced significantly higher mortality than nonveterans, might be biased by nonrandom selection into the military and should be further investigated. 23...
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (5): 1543–1570.
Published: 18 August 2015
...Sarah Bohn; Todd Pugatch Abstract We provide the first evidence on the causal effect of border enforcement on the full spatial distribution of Mexican immigrants to the United States. We address the endogeneity of border enforcement with an instrumental variables strategy based on administrative...
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Includes: Supplementary data