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Initial Expectation

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Journal Article
Demography (1968) 5 (1): 185–197.
Published: 01 March 1968
... years) the differences in patterns of mortality do not seem to have much significance. The differences in projected total population owing to differences in patterns of mortality in such projections remain less than one percent. In long-term projections with lower initial expectation of life at birth...
Journal Article
Demography (1980) 17 (4): 365–378.
Published: 01 November 1980
...Ronald Freedman; Deborah S. Freedman; Arland D. Thornton Abstract Changing fertility expectations and preferences from 1962 to 1977 are compared with final parity in a longitudinal study. Results are strongly affected by initial parity in 1962. Final parity, 27 percent below expectations for those...
Journal Article
Demography (1982) 19 (1): 65–78.
Published: 01 February 1982
...Deborah S. Freedman; Arland Thornton Abstract This paper uses longitudinal data for 1962–1977 to examine the relationship of husband’s income to 1962 expected fertility, to final parity, and to the discrepancy between initial expectations and final parity, separately for four groups of women who...
Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (6): 1675–1688.
Published: 01 December 2023
... models. In this research note, we propose a derivative-based method to decompose the differentials in population-based health expectancies estimated via a multistate model into two main components: the proportion resulting from differences in initial health structure and the proportion resulting from...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (5): 1681–1704.
Published: 19 September 2018
... child for five months or longer are a distinct group. They have more children overall and higher odds of having three or more children rather than two, compared with women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. Expected fertility is associated with initiating breastfeeding but not with how...
FIGURES | View All (4)
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1579–1602.
Published: 28 July 2017
... in the event rates of the measure and differences in trends in these underlying event rates. For instance, when studying divergence in life expectancy, this method allows researchers to more easily contrast age-specific mortality trends between populations by controlling for initial age-specific mortality...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1967) 4 (1): 388–396.
Published: 01 March 1967
...). The initial GAF survey was conducted in 1955 and resulted in the book Family Planning, Sterility, and Population Growth , by Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur A. Campbell, published by McGraw-Hill in 1958. A basic purpose of the GAF studies, as contrived by Whelpton, was that of trying...
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (1): 267–290.
Published: 23 February 2011
... developed and developing countries) over the period 1955–2003. By applying finite mixture regression models, principal component analysis, and random-effects panel regression models, we find that (1) the negative correlation between the initial adulthood mortality rate and the rate of increase in mortality...
FIGURES | View All (9)
Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (1): 27–49.
Published: 23 November 2013
... mass indices are projected using transition matrices applied to the initial distribution in 2010. In addition to projections of current obesity, we project distributions of obesity when cohorts are age 25. To these distributions, we apply death rates by current and age-25 obesity status observed...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography 11372303.
Published: 21 May 2024
... potential of, and routes to, recovery from initial losses. Drawing on German Socio-Economic Panel data (1984–2021) on women in marital and cohabiting unions ( N ∼ 27,000 women, N ∼ 3,400 divorces and separations), we use fixed-effects regression models and event-history models to analyze changes...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (3): 423–429.
Published: 01 August 1984
...Arland D. Thornton; Ronald Freedman; Deborah S. Freedman 12 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1984 1984 Parity Group American Sociological Review Initial Parity Initial Expectation Ordinal Nature References Freedman R. , Freedman D. S...
Journal Article
Demography (2004) 41 (2): 335–361.
Published: 01 May 2004
... between ADL states of the oldest-old were investigated for the first time in a developing country. In this article, we report estimates of bias-corrected disabled and active life expectancies of the Chinese oldest-old and demonstrate patterns of large differences associated with initial status, gender...
Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (3): 471–489.
Published: 01 August 1975
.... Applied to an initial population for which age structure, the fertility schedule, and expected trends in life expectancy and age-specific proportions of females married are known, TABRAP incorporates the following factors: age at acceptance, with acceptors drawn from currently married nonusers; age-method...
Journal Article
Demography (1973) 10 (3): 405–419.
Published: 01 August 1973
... ) in phase-intervals, rather than survival rates ( nPx ) or expectation of life at given ages ( e x o ). The analysis suggests that the historical transition of mortality in the United States can be described as a three-stage process: an initial stage of slow improvement in life expectancy during 1850–1900...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (4): 865–881.
Published: 01 November 2007
... Human Capital Investment (IHCI) model, indicating an inverse relationship between initial earnings and earnings growth and showing some evidence of the expected interaction between skill transferability and skill level when predicting human capital investment deci- sions. Having more years of education...
Journal Article
Demography (1991) 28 (4): 571–586.
Published: 01 November 1991
... nonlegal unions. In addition, current legal status is more important for predicting stability of union than is legal status at the initiation of the union. We also find that the effect of current legal status remains constant over various durations of unions and that legalizing a nonlegal union has little...
Journal Article
Demography (1976) 13 (4): 513–519.
Published: 01 November 1976
...)/( r μ R 0 , where b and r are the birth rate and the rate of growth, respectively, of the stable population, e 0 0 the life expectancy at birth, and μ the average age at childbirth in the resulting stationary population. Noting that the decline in m x need not necessarily be uniform, investigation has...
Journal Article
Demography (2007) 44 (1): 59–77.
Published: 01 February 2007
... and has more children than one with better education, and because of a similar well-established relationship between current education and current fertility at the societal level, one might expect such education reversals to raise fertility. However, if there is an additional negative effect of low...
Journal Article
Demography (1984) 21 (3): 413–422.
Published: 01 August 1984
... the hazards of descriptive analysis, especially of sample data which come in the form of contingency tables. 12 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1984 1984 High School Graduate Prefer Model Final Parity Initial Parity Expected Frequency References Duncan O. D...
Published: 27 July 2017
, or moderately severe anxiety/depression at age 45, 55, 65, and 75. Top panel is for females; bottom panel is for males. The height and area of each bar is proportional to the overall remaining life expectancy of the synthetic cohorts with initial ages of 45, 55, 65, and 75 years; and the differently shaded More