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Income gradient

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Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (Suppl 1): S211–S231.
Published: 01 March 2010
... similar health gradients in income and wealth in both countries, but for 70- to 80-year-olds, we find no income gradient in the United Kingdom. Standard behavioral risk factor’s (work, marriage, obesity, exercise, and smoking) almost fully explain income gradients among those aged 55–64 in both countries...
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 303–324.
Published: 01 May 2009
...Lisa Cameron; Jenny Williams Abstract Recent research on the relationship between child health and income in developed countries reveals a positive gradient that is more pronounced for older children, suggesting that the impact of income upon health accumulates. This article examines whether...
Journal Article
Demography (2003) 40 (4): 675–699.
Published: 01 November 2003
..., although decreasingly so, at higher levels of socioeconomic status. To minimize problems with reverse causality, I tested competing hypotheses for observed socioeconomic gradients for infant mortality outcomes. I found no support for the income-inequality hypothesis and negligible support...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (2): 809–812.
Published: 23 March 2017
.... ( 2009 ). Child health and the income gradient: Evidence from Australia . Journal of Health Economics , 28 , 805 – 817 . 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.05.001 . Khanam , R. , Nghiem , H. S. , & Connelly , L. B. ( 2013 ). What roles do contemporaneous and cumulative incomes play...
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (Suppl 1): S5–S15.
Published: 01 March 2010
... society, issues such as the ones examined in this special issue. 27 1 2011 © Population Association of America 2010 2010 Comparative Effectiveness Research Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Income Gradient Baby Boom Cohort Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Sample References Banks J...
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (2): 499–524.
Published: 17 March 2012
... century prospects . Journal of Health & Social Behavior , 43 , 125 – 142 . 10.2307/3090192 Khanama R. , Nghiemb H. S. , & Connelly L. B. ( 2009 ). Child health and the income gradient: Evidence from Australia . Journal of Health Economics , 28 , 805 – 817 . 10.1016...
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Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (6): 2117–2138.
Published: 01 December 2021
... that high-income countries experience substantial, and potentially increasing, inequality in late life longevity. Using registry data from the Netherlands for the period 1996–2007, Kalwij et al. (2013) found a clear income gradient in remaining life expectancy at age 65. Likewise, Waldron (2007...
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Journal Article
Demography (2016) 53 (3): 597–621.
Published: 15 April 2016
.... ( 2007 ). The child health/family income gradient: Evidence from England . Journal of Health Economics , 26 , 213 – 232 . 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2006.08.003 Currie J. , & Stabile M. ( 2003 ). Socioeconomic status and child health: Why is the relationship stronger for older...
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Journal Article
Demography (2008) 45 (1): 173–191.
Published: 01 February 2008
... incomes both before and after taxes and transfers, as well as their gradients across household categories. By decomposing the components correspond- ing to market earnings and governmental transfers into a level factor and a gradient factor, we assess whether a higher poverty rate in the United States...
Journal Article
Demography (2009) 46 (2): 387–403.
Published: 01 May 2009
... A. , & Schonlau M. ( 2007 ). Noncoverage and Nonresponse in an Internet Survey . Social Science Research , 36 , 131 – 48 . 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.10.002 Currie A. , Shields M. , & Price S. ( 2004 ). Is the Child Health/Income Gradient Universal? Evidence From England . Bonn...
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (4): 1529–1558.
Published: 27 July 2017
...-income contexts, where older individuals often experience lower levels of DA. Although socioeconomic and risk- or uncertainty-related stressors are strongly associated with DA, they do not explain the positive age gradients and gender gap in DA. Stressors related to physical health, however, do. Hence...
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Journal Article
Demography (2016) 53 (1): 241–267.
Published: 04 January 2016
... into children younger than and older than 24 months of age and found that while maternal education is important for younger children, household income matters for the older group. Fernald et al. ( 2012 ) found that positive gradients associated with wealth and education tend to grow in importance over the first...
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Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (6): 2075–2102.
Published: 13 November 2014
... between groups. Table 2 Average expected longevity gradients at age 50 according to different measures of socioeconomic status Wealth Nonfinancial Income Labor Market Status Marital Status Smoking Marital Status and Smoking White Males  (1) All individuals 3.6 0.8 2.0...
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Journal Article
Demography (1997) 34 (1): 159–170.
Published: 01 February 1997
...James P. Smith; Raynard Kington Abstract In this paper we examine disparities in the ability to function among older Americans. We place special emphasis on two goals: (I) understanding the quantitatively large socioeconomic status-health gradient, and (2) the persistence in health outcomes over...
Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (3): 993–1012.
Published: 04 December 2012
..., the pattern in the United States is generally inverse and particularly strong for women and non-Hispanic whites (Ogden et al. 2010 ). 1 An opposite pattern is observed in the developing world, where either flat or positive gradients prevail—that is, higher income, education, and occupational prestige...
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Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (5): 1935–1956.
Published: 25 September 2018
...Laura Rossouw; Teresa Bago d’Uva; Eddy van Doorslaer Abstract In spite of the wide disparities in wealth and in objective health measures like mortality, observed inequality by wealth in self-reported health appears to be nearly nonexistent in low- to middle-income settings. To determine the extent...
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Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (2): 629–652.
Published: 01 April 2022
... (2005) analysis of the effect of social mobility on health and survival among older Americans. The age patterns of social gradients in healthy longevity in China differ substantially from the observed patterns in high-income societies. Studies in the United States and the United Kingdom that used...
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Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (3): 953–977.
Published: 05 May 2020
... developed into a modern welfare state with general health care provision, pension systems that one could live on, housing allowances, and income loss compensation. The fact that the class gradient emerged earlier for women than for men makes it unlikely that health care was a key factor given that we...
Journal Article
Demography (2021) 58 (5): 1655–1685.
Published: 01 October 2021
... that the generational gradient is not fully explained by family background factors (i.e., mother's age, mother's educational level, household consumption income); stressors, such as family instability (i.e., parental divorce before the child's 10th birthday, child not living in a two-parent family); or the mother's...
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Journal Article
Demography (2013) 50 (4): 1499–1520.
Published: 04 July 2013
...Matthijs Kalmijn Abstract Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient...
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