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Downward Bias

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Journal Article
Demography (1988) 25 (3): 317–335.
Published: 01 August 1988
... a serious downward bias. Longitudinal data imply that dissaving does not occur after age 65. 30 12 2010 © Population Association of America 1988 1988 Birth Cohort Differential Mortality Occupation Group Intergenerational Transfer Mortality Experience References Becker , G...
Journal Article
Demography (1989) 26 (1): 117–123.
Published: 01 February 1989
... is more biased downward the more highly correlated are the couple's and their parents' incomes and the larger is the negative impact of their parents' income through the Easterlin intergenerational taste effect. Previous estimates, to our knowledge, have not been able to avoid this possible bias directly...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (2): 707–728.
Published: 28 January 2019
... variable (Aigner 1973 ). Errors in age could also cause directional biases—for example, by increasing the spread of the HAZ distribution and thereby raising estimates of stunting prevalence, or by introducing spurious correlation between specific birth months and HAZ outcomes that bias estimates...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (5): 1387–1413.
Published: 01 October 2023
... variation, artificially inflating the variance of incomes within-neighborhoods. This biases measures of income segregation downward. This source of bias has not been discussed in the literature. The ACS uses pooled samples (pooled over five years in the case of tract-level data), but the decennial...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1983) 20 (3): 407–413.
Published: 01 August 1983
... counties. These tests provide further evidence that the new techniques produce more precise, less biased estimates than previously used techniques. 7 1 2011 © Population Association of America 1983 1983 Housing Unit Absolute Percentage Error Upward Bias Recent Census Group Quarter...
Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (3): 1131–1157.
Published: 02 May 2014
... refusal rates. They estimated that the observed prevalence rates were biased downward by as much as 38 % for men and 25 % for women. 3 In this article, we use a Heckman-type selection model with interviewer identities as instrumental variables, exploiting their random assignment to households...
FIGURES
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (3): 1023–1050.
Published: 17 April 2019
...-censored. This corresponds to inactivity, return migration, or panel attrition, for instance. 12 A legitimate concern would be that similar self-selection effects might occur at the regional level, inducing a downward bias in the coefficient of Trust or . Indeed, from a theoretical point of view...
FIGURES
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2010) 47 (3): 651–665.
Published: 01 August 2010
... for these men and women (who were nonparticipants in 2006 but were tested in 2004) shows that they are not (p = .30 for men; p = .42 for women).6 This suggests that nonresponse sig- ni¿ cantly biased downward the HIV prevalence estimates for the longitudinal participants.7 It further implies that if the 2006...
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (6): 2001–2024.
Published: 02 November 2018
... denotes state of occurrence, r denotes race, and t denotes calendar year. IMR is often reported as deaths per thousand live births, but we report in percentage points for simplicity. We know from contemporary evidence that ( Published Births s , r , t ) is biased downward in a way that leads...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2001) 38 (1): 1–16.
Published: 01 February 2001
... schedule, particularly when the rate of change in the variance increases over time. We show that applying the BF adjustment to periods with an increasing mean age and variance leads to a downward bias in the estimated mean age and the annual change thereof. We provide analytic expressions to approximate...
Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (3): 519–536.
Published: 01 August 1975
... tendency may exist for the parameter estimates of the change variables to be biased down- ward. This downward bias occurs be- cause migration may influence end-of- period levels of certain variables by influencing the behavior of these vari- ables over the period in question. The end-of-period level...
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (6): 1917–1927.
Published: 05 October 2015
... passed; respondents are censored at last observation. Some children ( n = 87) were still of primary school age at the end-line survey in 2006; thus, there could be downward bias in this outcome if children had not yet completed schooling. Concerns about bias due to censoring are somewhat mitigated...
Journal Article
Demography (2003) 40 (4): 741–757.
Published: 01 November 2003
... upward or downward biases, either for the total population or for any specific age group. Rather, the tendency for projections to be too high or too low is determined by the correspondence between the underlying assumptions and the ensuing demographic trends. For some sets, the majority of projections...
Journal Article
Demography (2004) 41 (3): 385–415.
Published: 01 August 2004
... when the overstatement of ages affects the age distribu- tion of deaths. When both distortions are present, errors will be offset, but typically, the net effect will be to bias the death rates downward. Mismatches of records. The third source of error that could lead to downward biases in the mortality...
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (2): 627–652.
Published: 23 March 2020
... be biased downward if sex-selective abortions practiced at higher parity is the dominant source of selection bias. Although the existence of the child gender effect is clear from the KELS sample of firstborn children in Table 4 , there may be a concern as to whether the decline in the gender gap in Fig. 4...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1970) 7 (3): 349–360.
Published: 01 August 1970
..., the subjects were a sampIe of white women who had borne a second child in September 1956 and had other specified characteristics. Data on the length of the interval from the first to the second birth in such a sampIe will have a downward bias if the number of women having first births has been increasing...
Journal Article
Demography (1975) 12 (2): 303–312.
Published: 01 May 1975
... here that the equa- tions in (18) are just for one particular outcome of the u and v ratios. Depend- ing on the data and the u and v values corresponding to them, we may have to modify accordingly our initial assump- tion of either always downward bias or always upward bias in the age misstate- ment...
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (6): 2129–2160.
Published: 16 October 2018
... that downward bias in I ^ j and E ^ j will lead R ^ and H ^ to be biased upward. This is the source of upward bias in sample-based estimates of segregation. 7 In online appendix A , we show that the approximate biases in both R ^ and H...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (6): 2147–2168.
Published: 11 November 2019
... compared with the group that gives birth and contains no abortion types. This will create a downward bias on the effect of giving birth. Therefore, the estimated γ ̂ 1 represents the lower bound for the effect of teen childbearing on Y . These bounds assume that miscarriage does not have...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1964) 1 (1): 227–241.
Published: 01 March 1964
... the presence of an upward or downward bias in the estimates. Because all the state estimates are adjusted to a national 9 David Goldberg, Allen Feldt, and J. William Smit, Estimates of Population Change in Michi- gan8 1950-1960, in "Michigan Population Stud- ies," No. 1 Ann Arbor, Mich. (University of Michigan...