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Confluence

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Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (5): 1895–1931.
Published: 27 September 2014
... resources are diluted in larger families; (2) the confluence hypothesis, which suggests that the intellectual milieu of families is lowered with additional children; and (3) the admixture (“no effect”) hypothesis, which suggests that the negative relationship between family size and achievement...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (5): 1625–1646.
Published: 15 September 2020
... with all older siblings. This indicates that negative birth order effects tend to operate either within or across sets of full siblings, depending on the sex of the parent displaying multipartnered fertility. We argue that these findings can be explained by a combination of resource dilution/confluence...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2015) 52 (2): 613–639.
Published: 17 March 2015
... to account for how birth order is related to later life outcomes, including the resource dilution hypothesis (Blake 1981 ), the confluence hypothesis (Zajonc and Markus 1975 ), and the hygiene hypothesis (Strachan 1989 ). Empirical research has shown that birth order is a marker of early-life relative...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2017) 54 (2): 459–484.
Published: 13 February 2017
... and the subsequent child. The two main theories concerning the early social environment that would explain why short birth intervals should have negative consequences for children are the resource dilution hypothesis (Blake 1989 ) and the confluence hypothesis (Zajonc 1976 ; Zajonc and Markus 1975...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (1982) 19 (2): 211–221.
Published: 01 May 1982
... in Urban-Rural Migration . New York : Academic Press . Wardwell J.M. , & Gilchrist C.J. ( 1980 ). The Distribution of Population and Energy in Nonmetropolitan Areas: Confluence and Divergence . Social Science Quarterly , 61 , 567 – 580 . Williams J.D. , & Sofranko...
Journal Article
Demography (2019) 56 (4): 1453–1461.
Published: 10 June 2019
... of Homeland Security 2016 ). The extent to which the migration of U.S.-born minors reflects the economic motivations of their parents versus the impact of deportation is not known, but it seems clear that the confluence of economic crisis and immigration enforcement drove the migration of U.S.-born minors...
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Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (2): 599–617.
Published: 28 February 2014
.... Socioemotionally, children can benefit from grandparents in many ways. According to the confluence model (Zajonc and Markus 1975 ), an influential theory of birth order effects on IQ, children’s intelligence is in part determined by the average cognitive level of the people they interact with in the family...
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Journal Article
Demography (1976) 13 (3): 357–368.
Published: 01 August 1976
... of estimating A\. Finally, a variety of compensating fertility and mortality changes is illustrated using data from Japan. INTRODUCTION An important maxim of stable popu- lation theory is that the confluence of any two age-specific schedules of fertility and mortality determines a unique intrinsic rate...
Journal Article
Demography (2022) 59 (3): 1117–1142.
Published: 01 June 2022
... pattern that reduces sibling competition may be beneficial for long-term outcomes ( Cunha et al. 2006 ; Heckman 2006 ). The spacing of siblings in the household has also been linked to the degree of children's intellectual stimulation ( Zajonc 1976 ). This finding is consistent with the confluence...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2012) 49 (4): 1453–1477.
Published: 19 July 2012
... (Mueller 1984 ). Although this explanation is also in line with the confluence model in which early-born children benefit from mentoring younger siblings (Zajonc and Markus 1975 ), it is in contrast with reports from developed countries where later-born children are better off because of the family stage...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2018) 55 (3): 929–955.
Published: 21 May 2018
... to less parental supervision in disadvantaged families (Crowne et al. 2012 ) and that intervals shorter than two years are associated with an increased risk of injuries among children (Nathens et al. 2000 ). Another potentially important theory here is the confluence hypothesis (Zajonc and Markus...
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Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
Demography (2011) 48 (1): 291–316.
Published: 19 February 2011
...). Thus, of the 11.4/100 excess in Zeng’s adjusted sex ratio at birth in 1.5-child areas, 3.7/100 [or 32%; (119.7–116.0) / (119.7–108.3)] may be attributed to compliance with stopping rules. A third caveat concerns the confluence of stopping rules and daughter preference. Many studies have shown...
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Journal Article
Demography (1964) 1 (1): 136–147.
Published: 01 March 1964
..., and other es- been exposed to a market economy and sential municipal services, it is also true are being made more and more aware of that these cities are usually very favor- rational economic considerations. The in- ably located at the confluence of water- habitants of these cities are becoming ways, rail...
Journal Article
Demography (1986) 23 (4): 473–487.
Published: 01 November 1986
... this connection, with predictable results for fertility behavior. A fourth area has to do with the confluence of demographic change and political institutions that affect the pattern of income redistribution by the state. In a democracy operating on the one-adult, one-vote principle, population aging tends...
Journal Article
Demography (1972) 9 (3): 415–430.
Published: 01 August 1972
... -and a southern portion of Mymen- singh. This area is at the confluence of the major rivers of East Pakistan, the Ganges, J amuna, Brahmaputra, and Meghna. In 1961 the surveyed region contained more than one-fourth of the East Pakistan population, but it has only about one-sixth of the land area. Literacy...
Journal Article
Demography (2020) 57 (4): 1437–1457.
Published: 19 May 2020
... that both the decision to evacuate and the destination were largely voluntary, it seems unlikely that evacuee data reflect where the government chose to resettle people rather than the migration decisions of the evacuees themselves. It is the confluence of preferences, kin networks, social capital...
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Journal Article
Demography (2001) 38 (4): 449–465.
Published: 01 November 2001
... on both scholars and ordinary people. The paper has two strong theses. First, the confluence of these three elements has dominated the study of family change for centuries, and understanding this confluence is a I *Arland Thornton, Survey Research Center, Population Studies Cen- ter, and Department...
Journal Article
Demography (1966) 3 (2): 500–512.
Published: 01 June 1966
... sug- gest a population of about 2,700-3,000. The situation was changed drastically when the Marshall family built a bridge about A.D. 1211 across the Barrow, 15 miles above Waterford and 2 miles below the confluence of the Nore with the Bar- row," at the site of New Ross. This pre- sumably forced...
Journal Article
Demography (2023) 60 (1): 99–122.
Published: 01 February 2023
... in helping behaviors were likely influenced by a confluence of factors, such as competing leisure interests associated with in-home entertainment options (e.g., TV and other screen options) and increasing destandardization of work and family lives ( Clifford 2021 ; Livingston 2019 )—all of which may have...
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Journal Article
Demography (2014) 51 (1): 119–139.
Published: 27 November 2013
... Vrieze , S. I. , Iacono , W. G. , & McGue , M. ( 2012 ). Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post genome-wide association study world . Development and Psychopathology , 24 , 1195 – 1214 . 10.1017/S0954579412000648 Weedon , M. N. , Lango , H...
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