Abstract

Data from the Ankara Family Study, in which 1138 married women living in Ankara city and four selected villages in Ankara Province were interviewed in 1965–66, are used to study the impact of the amount and timing of urban residential experience on six dimensions of modernism in attitudes and behavior. Scores on the modernism indexes consistently are higher for the women with urban residential experience. The proportions of variance in the study population accounted for by the urbanism factor are: nearly three-fifths on the mass media index; nearly two-fifths on the nuclear family role structure index; three-tenths on the home production or consumption index; two-tenths on the religiosity and extra-local orientation indexes; and a seventh on the extended family ties index. The place of residence prior to marriage, the period when decisions about schooling are made and socialization into adult roles occurs, appears to be of special importance. Women who migrated from villages to the city at any stage of the life-cycle, however, report attitudes and behavior more modern than those of women with no urban residential experience (though less modern than those of women who have always lived in a city). Such micro-social analyses may help to illuminate the relation between urbanization and modernization in developing nations and to account for the coexistence of modern and traditional patterns in transitional societies.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Abu-Lughod, J. (
1964
).
Urban-rural differences as a function of the demographic transition: Egyptian data and an analytical model
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
69
,
476
490
10.1086/223651.
Adelman, I., & Morris, C. T. (
1967
).
A quantitative study of social and political determinants of fertility
.
Economic Development and Cultural Change
,
14
,
129
157
10.1086/450151.
Andrews, F., Morgan, J., & Sonquist, J. (
1967
).
Multiple Classification Analysis: A Report on a Computer Program for Multiple Regression Using Categorical Predictors
.
Ann Arbor
:
Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research
.
Bendix, R. (
1967
).
Tradition and modernity reconsidered
.
Comparative Studies in Society and History 9
,
3
,
292
346
10.1017/S0010417500004540.
Blau, P., & Duncan, O. D. (
1967
).
The American Occupational Structure
.
New York
:
Wiley
.
Bogue, D. J. (
1955
).
Urbanism in the United States, 1950
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
60
,
471
486
10.1086/221607.
Bose, S. P. (
1962
).
Peasant values and innovation in India
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
67
,
552
560
10.1086/223192.
Burch, T. K. (
1967
).
The size and structure of families: a comparative analysis
.
American Sociological Review
,
32
,
347
363
10.2307/2091083.
Fei, H-T. (
1946
).
Peasantry and gentry: an interpretation of Chinese social structure and its changes
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
52
,
1
17
10.1086/219914.
Friedl, E. (
1964
).
Lagging emulation in post-peasant society
.
American Anthropologist
,
66
,
569
586
10.1525/aa.1964.66.3.02a00040.
Frey, F. W. (
1964
).
Education
. In R. E. Ward, & D. E. Rustow (Eds.),
Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey
.
Princeton
:
Princeton University Press
.
Gibson, G. 1969. Kin family network: over-heralded structure in past conceptualization of family functioning. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association meeting in San Francisco.
Gusfield, J. (
1967
).
Tradition and modernity: misplaced polarities in the study of social change
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
72
,
351
362
10.1086/224334.
P. M. Hauser (
1957
).
Urbanization in Asia and the Far East
.
Calcutta
:
UNESCO
.
Hoselitz, B. F. (
1960
).
Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth
.
Glencoe
:
Free Press
.
Inkeles, A. (
1966
).
The modernization of man
. In M. Weiner (Ed.),
Modernization: The Dynamics of Growth
.
New York
:
Basic Books
.
Inkeles, A. 1968. Making men modern: on the causes and consequences of individual change in six developing countries. Paper presented at the A.A.A.S. meetings, Dallas, Texas.
Kahl, J. A. (
1968
).
The Measurement of Modernism: A Study of Values in Brazil and Mexico
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Kazamias, A. M. (
1966
).
Education and the Quest for Modernity in Turkey
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Kuznets, S. (
1963
).
Consumption, industrialization, and urbanization
. In B. F. Hoselitz, & W. E. Moore (Eds.),
Industrialization and Society
.
Mouton
:
UNESCO
.
Lerner, D. (
1958
).
The Passing of Traditional Society
.
Glencoe
:
Free Press
.
Lewis, O. (
1952
).
Urbanization without breakdown: a case study
.
Scientific Monthly
,
75
,
31
41
.
Lewis, O. (
1966
).
The folk-urban ideal types
. In P. M. Hauser, & L. F. Schnore (Eds.),
The Study of Urbanization
.
New York
:
Wiley
.
W. E. Moore, & A. S. Feldman (
1960
).
Labor Commitment and Social Change in Developing Areas
.
New York
:
Social Science Research Council
.
Olsen, M. E. (
1968
).
Multivariate analysis of national political development
.
American Sociological Review
,
33
,
699
712
10.2307/2092881.
Robinson, R. D. (
1963
).
The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
.
Schnaiberg, A. 1968. Some Determinants and Consequences of Modernism in Turkey. Unpublished dissertation, University of Michigan.
Schnaiberg, A. 1969. The modernizing impact of urbanization: a causal analysis. Paper presented at the meetings of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, San Francisco, California.
Schramm, W. (
1964
).
Mass Media and National Development
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
.
Schuman, H. (
1967
).
Economic development and individual change: a social-psychological study of the Comilla experiment in Pakistan
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard Center for International Affairs
.
Sjoberg, G. (
1964
).
The rural-urban dimension in preindustrial, transitional, and industrial societies
. In R. E. L. Faris (Ed.),
Handbook 85 of Modem Sociology
.
Chieago
:
Rand MeNally
.
N. J. Smelser, & S. M. Lipset (
1966
).
Social Structure and Mobility in Economic Development
.
Chicago
:
Aldine
.
Smith, D. H., & Inkeles, A. (
1966
).
The OM Scale: a comparative socio-psychological measure of individual modernity
.
Sociometry
,
29
,
353
377
10.2307/2786293.
Sorokin, P. A., & Zimmerman, C. C. (
1929
).
Principles of Rural-Urban Sociology
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
.
Sussman, M. B., & Burchinal, L. (
1962
).
Kin family network: unheralded structure in current conceptualizations of family functioning
.
Marriage and Family Living
,
24
,
234
235
.
Taeuber, I. (
1951
).
Family, migration and industrialization in Japan
.
American Sociological Review
,
16
,
149
157
10.2307/2087687.
Tisdale, H. (
1942
).
The process of urbanization
.
Social Forces
,
20
,
311
316
10.2307/3005615.
Turkey, 1965. 24.10.1965. Census of Population by Administrative Division. State Institute of Statistics, publication no. 537.
Vogel, E. F. (
1967
).
Japan’s New Middle Class
.
Berkeley and Los Angeles
:
University of California Press
.
Wirth, L. (
1938
).
Urbanism as a way of life
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
44
,
1
24
10.1086/217913.