Resumen

Este trabajo examina las diferencias en la mediana de años de escolaridad completados por blancos y por no blancos, para las zonas urbana y rural de los estados del sur. Por supuesto, los blancos tienen niveles promedio de educatión más altos, pero el punto importante es la creciente diferencia entre blancos y no blancos. Las diferencias no aumentan en todos los estados del sur, pero aumentaron durante los años de 1950–1960 en siete de los once estados estudiados. Sáolo cuatro de los once estados mostraron un aumento en las diferencias educacionales durante los años 1940–50.

Se examinaron también los nivelés de educación en estos once estados de acuerdo a la edad y el sexo, y por residencia urbana y rural-agráicola; se examinaron también las diferencias en los niveles de educación de blancos y no blancos por cohortes. Coda uno de los estados estudiados tenía alguna cohorte en la cual la diferencia educacional se había ampliado, especialmente en las aréas ruralesagrícolas y más frecuentemente entre hombres que entre mujeres.

Un examen de la diferencia educacional entre personas de 25 a 34 años de edad, para los tres periodos censales de 1940, 1950, y 1960, moslró que en 1960 la diferencia en este grupo de edad, en áreas urbanas, era menor que en 1950 o en 1940. De acuerdo a esto, hay razôn para esperar una disminución en la diferencia educacional en las areas urbanas del sur, aunque algunas cohortes especificas muestran una ampliation de esta diferencia. Si miramos a estos grupos de edades en las areas rurales-agrícolas, se ve que la diferencia en 1960 es mayor que en 1950 o 1940; es decir que en las áreas rurales-agrícolas cada cohorte empiéta con una diferencia mayor, que tiende a incrementarse a medida que aumenta la edad, de modo que la diferencia educacional en las áreas rurales-agricolas, puede esperarse que continúe aumentando.

La creciente diferencia en la educación promedio entre blancos y no blancos, es atribuida a las más altas tasas de emigración de los no blancos mejor educados. Aunque se han computado lasas de supervivencia por nivel ocupacional para estudiar esto, la variación muestral para aquellos con doce o más años de escolaridad es grande, debido al pequeño número de personas incluidas. Continúa el análisis de este dato, en un esfuerzo para asociar las caracteristicas de los estados con patrones de selectividad educacional de los emigrantes.

Un reciente informe censal muestra que la proporción de no blancos entre los 18 y 24 años inscriptos en las escuelas, ha venido cayendo por debajo de la proporción de blancos en los mismos grupos de edades, desde 1955. Si continuara esta tendencia llevará a una desproporción mayor entre blancos y no blancos con grados universitarios. Y finalmente, a menos que se reduzca virtualmente la diferencia de nivel educacional entre blancos y no blancos, hay poca esperanza de que se logren las expectalivas econômicas de los no blancos.

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Summary

This paper examines differences between whites and nonwhites in median years of school completed, by urban and rural areas of southern states. Whites, of course, have higher average levels of education, but the important point is the increasing differential between whites and nonwhites. The differences do not increase in all southern states, but they did increase during the years 1950–60 in seven of the eleven states studied. Only four of the eleven states showed an increase in educational differentials during the years 1940-50.

The levels of education in these 11 states were also examined by age and sex and by urban and rural-farm residence, and differences between whites and nonwhites in level of education were examined by cohorts. Each of the states studied rod some cohorts in which the educational gap had widened—especially in rural farm areas and more frequently among males than among females.

An examination of the education gap among those aged 25–84 years was made for three census periods, 1940, 1950, and 1960. In 1960 the educational gap in this age group in urban areas was less than in either 1950 or 1940. Thus, there is reason to expect decreases in the educational gap in southern urban areas even though specific cohorts show a widening of the gap. Looking at this age group in rural-farm areas, it is seen that the gap in 1960 was greater than in either 1950 or 1940. Thus, in rural farm areas each cohort is starting with a larger differential that tends to increase with increasing age, so that the educational gap in rural farm areas can be expected to continue to increase.

The increasing difference in average education between whites and nonwhites is attributed to the higher out-migration, rates of the better educated nonwhites. Although survival rates were computed by educational level inorder to study this, the sampling variation for those with twelve or more years of education is large because of the small numbers of individuals involved. Analysis of these data is continuing in an effort to associate characteristics of states with patterns of educational selectivity of out migrants.

A recent census report shows that the proprtion of nonwhites aged 18-14 years enrolled in school has been falling further behin the proportion of whites in the same age group since 1955. This trend, if continued, will lead to increasing disproportions of whites and nonwhites with college degrees. Unless the gap in educational level between whites and nonwhites is reduced and eventually eliminated there is little hope for the fulfillment of economic expectations on the part of nonwhites.

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References

2
Daniel O. Price, “Effects of Out-Migration on Educational Level of Negro Males in Southern United States” (paper presented to the United Nations World Population Conference [Belgrade, Yugoslavia, September, 1965]).
3
Ibid.Daniel O. Price, “Effects of Out-Migration on Educational Level of Negro Males in Southern United States” (paper presented to the United Nations World Population Conference [Belgrade, Yugoslavia, September, 1965]).
4
United States Bureau of the Census, “School Enrollment: October 1965,”Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics Series P-20, No. 162, March 24, 1967.
5
U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports. Educational Attainment. Final Report, PC (2)-5B, p. ix.
6
Jacob S. Siegel, "Completeness of Coverage of the Nonwhite Population in the 1960 Census and Current Estimates, and Some Implications" (paper presented to the Conference on Social Statistics and the City [Washington, D.C., June, 1965)], Table 2.
7
Ibid. Jacob S. Siegel, “Completeness of Coverage of the Nonwhite Population in the 1960 Census and Current Estimates, and Some Implications” (paper presented to the Conference on Social Statistics and the City [Washington, D.C., June, 1965)], Table 2.
8
Ibid. Jacob S. Siegel, “Completeness of Coverage of the Nonwhite Population in the 1960 Census and Current Estimates, and Some Implications” (paper presented to the Conference on Social Statistics and the City [Washington, D.C., June, 1965)], Table 2.
9
Leon Pritzker and N. D. Rothwell, “Procedural Difficulties in Taking Past Censuses in Predominantly Negro, Puerto Rican, and Mexican Areas” (paper presented to the Conference on Social Statistics and the City [Washington, D.C., June, 1965]), p. 12.