Resumen

Este articulo utiliza datos del censo de 1960 sobre natalidad y analiza diferencias de fertilidad en terminos de medidas refinadas de actual fertilidad las cuales eran hasta ahora imposibles de construir. Teniendo en cuenta que el promedio de las mujeres blancas nativas es menos fértil que las mujeres negras, que las mujeresurbanas son menos fértiles que las mujeres rurales y que las mujeres que trabajan son menos fértiles que no trabajan, los autores han encontrado tres diferencias en fertilwad por ingreso.

Primero, teniendo en cuenta el ingreso familiar para las mujeres blancas nativas que no trabajan las diferencia de fertilidad son muy muy pequeñas y no hay ninguna distribución definida de esas diferencias. Esto se presenta tanto en las zonas rurales como en las urbanas. Para mujeres negras sin embargo hay una marcada relación inversa entre ingreso familiar y fertilidad. Esta relación es más debil en las areas urbanas que en las areas rurales. Las mujeres blancas nativas que trabajan con excepción de las situadas en las tres categorias mas alias de ingreso, las cualesson menos fértiles, muestran insignificantes diferencias en fertilidad. Esto es cierto tanto en areas urbanas como en areas rurales, presentando una debil relacion inversa. Para las mujeres negras la relación entre ingreso familiar y fertilidad tiende a ser simplemente inversa pero esta relación es mas débil en las areas urbanas.

Segundo, teniendo en cuenta el ingreso real del marido para las mujeres blancas nativas a pesar de que la diferencia en fertilidad es pequeña, hay una visible relación entre ingreso del marido y fertilidad, y esto es algo mas fuerte en las areas urbanas que en las rurales. Para las mujeres negras sin embargo hay una relación inversa y las diferencias en fertilidad son menores en areas urbanas que en areas rurales.

Tercero, teniendo en cuenta el ingreso de las mujeres que trabajan, tanto para blancas nativas como para negras, las mujeres en los dos extremos de la escala de ingresos muestran una mayor fertilidad que las que estan situadas en el medio. Esto conforma aproximadamenie una curva de forma de U.

Este articulo demuestra, pues, que la tradicional relación inversaentre ingreso y tasa de natalidad no existe practicamente en la población blanca, y que incluso entre las mujeres negras la previamente bien establecida relación inversa parece estar modificandose. Finalmente las diferencias de fertilidad para blancas y negrasson mas pequeñas en areasurbanas que en areas rurales.

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Summary

This paper uses data from the 1960 Census on own children and analyzes fertility differences in terms of refined measures of current fertility that have hitherto been impossible to construct. Noting that, on the average, native white women are less fertile than Negroes, that urban women are less fertile than rural women, and that women in the labor force are less fertile than women not in the labor force, the author finds three differentials in fertility by income.

First, in family income, for native white women who are not in the labor force, fertility differentials are very small, and there is no definite pattern of differentials. This is the case, moreover, in urbanized areas and in rural areas. For Negroes, however, there is a very sharp inverse relationship between family income and fertility. This relationship is weaker in urbanized than in rural areas. Native white women in the labor force, except those in the three highest income brackets who are less fertile, show negligible differences in fertility. This is also the case in urbanized areas and in rural areas, and this shows a weak inverse relationship. But for Negroes, the relationship between family income and fertility tends to be a simple inverse one, and this relationship is weaker in urbanized areas.

Second, for income of husband, for native white women, although fertility differentials are small there is a visible relationship between income of husband and fertility, and this is somewhat stronger in urbanized than in rural areas. For Negro women, however, there is an inverse relationship, and the fertility differentials are smaller in urbanized than in rural areas.

Third, for income of employed women, for native whites as well as Negroes, women in both ends of the income scale show higher fertility than do those in the middle, to form a roughlyU-shaped curve.

This paper demonstrates, then, that the traditional inverse relationship between income and birth rates no longer holds among whites, and that even among Negroes, the previously well-established inverse relationship seems to be heading toward some modification. Finally, fertility differences for both whites and Negroes are smaller in urban than in rural areas.

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References

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Lee-Jay Cho, Wilson H. Grabill, Donald J. Bogue, and Maria Davidson,Differential Fertility in the United States (Chicago: Community and Family Study Center [in press]).
4
United States Bureau of the Census,Women by Number of Children Under 5 and 5 to 9 Years Old, Vol. II, Special Reports, Part 3C (1968).
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Grabill, , & Cho, (
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Grabill, , & Cho, (
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Donald J. Bogue,Population Trends (in press) developed an index of demographic transition expressed as percent transition completed; for example, Japan has an index of 100.
10
Cho, Grabill, Bogue, and Davidson,op. cit. Lee-Jay Cho, Wilson H. Grabill, Donald J. Bogue, and Maria Davidson,Differential Fertility in the United States (Chicago: Community and Family Study Center [in press]).
11
Minoru Muramatsu (ed.),Japan's Experience in Family Planning—Past and Present (Family Planning Federation of Japan, Inc., March, 1967), p. 44.