Abstract

The incorporation of biological information in large population surveys has expanded demographic analysis to clarify the meaning of observed trends and differences in population health and mortality. Levels of measured biological risk in the population were reduced in recent years largely because of the expanded use of prescription drugs. The increased use of antihypertensives and, to a lesser extent, lipid-lowering drugs was a likely cause of significant mortality reduction. Blacks and persons with lower educational attainment experience higher levels of biological risk factors, more diseases, and more frailty; these differences are the sources of higher mortality for these groups. Hispanics are less likely to have a higher prevalence of risk factors and diseases than the non-Hispanic population, providing further understanding of the “Hispanic paradox.” Almost every examined indicator of biological risk, disease, and frailty is related to higher mortality, indicating how incorporation of this information provides a fuller understanding of the morbidity process.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Aiello, A., Haan, M.N., Blythe, L., Moore, K., Gonzalez, J.M., & Jagust, W. (
2006
).
The Influence of Latent Viral Infection on Rate of Cognitive Decline Over 4 Years
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
54
,
1046
54
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00796.x
Albert, M.A., Glynn, R.J., Buring, J., & Ridker, P.M. (
2006
).
Impact of Traditional and Novel Risk Factors on the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Incident Cardiovascular Events
.
Circulation
,
114
,
2619
26
. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.660043
Alley, D., Crimmins, E., Bandeen-Roche, K., Guralnik, J., & Ferrucci, L. (
2007
).
Three-Year Change in Inflammatory Markers in Elderly People and Mortality: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
11
,
1801
807
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01390.x
Alley, D.E., Crimmins, E.M., Hu, P., Karlamangla, A., & Seeman, T.E. (
2008
).
Inflammation and Rate of Cognitive Change in High-Functioning Older Adults
.
Journals of Gerontology A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
63
,
50
55
.
Alley, D., Seeman, T.E., Kim, J.K., Karlamangla, A., Hu, P., & Crimmins, E.M. (
2006
).
Socioeconomic Status and C-Reactive Protein Levels in the U.S. Population: NHANES IV
.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
,
20
,
498
504
. 10.1016/j.bbi.2005.10.003
Allison, D.B., Faith, M., Heo, M., & Kotler, D. (
1997
).
Hypothesis Concerning the U-shaped Relation Between Body Mass Index and Mortality
.
American Journal of Epidemiology
,
146
,
339
49
.
Al Snih, S., Graham, J.E., Ray, L.A., Samper-Ternent, R., Markides, K.S., & Ottenbacher, K.J. (
2009
).
Frailty and Incidence of Activities of Daily Living Disability Among Older Mexican Americans
.
Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine
,
41
,
892
97
. 10.2340/16501977-0424
Bandeen-Roche, K., Xue, Q.-L., Ferrucci, L., Walston, J., Guralnik, J.M., Chaves, P., Zeger, S.L., & Fried, L.P. (
2006
).
Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women’s Health and Aging Studies
.
Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
3
,
262
66
.
Banks, J., Marmot, M., Oldfield, Z., & Smith, J.P. (
2006
).
Disease and Disadvantage in the United States and in England
.
Journal of the American Medical Association
,
295
,
2037
45
. 10.1001/jama.295.17.2037
Barter, P.J., & Rye, K.A. (
1996
).
High Density Lipoproteins and Coronary Heart Disease
.
Atherosclerosis
,
121
,
1
12
. 10.1016/0021-9150(95)05675-0
Benetos, A., Thomas, F., Bean, K., & Guize, L. (
2003
).
Why Cardiovascular Mortality Is Higher in Treated Hypertensives Versus Subjects of the Same Age, in the General Population
.
Journal of Hypertension
,
21
,
1635
40
. 10.1097/00004872-200309000-00011
Blaum, C.S., Ofstedal, M.B., Langa, K.M., & Wray, L.A. (
2003
).
Functional Status and Health Outcomes in Older Americans with Diabetes Mellitus
.
Journal of American Geriatrics Society
,
51
,
745
53
. 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003.51256.x
Blum, A., Peleg, A., & Weinberg, M. (
2003
).
Anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG Antibody Titer in Patients With Risk Factors to Atherosclerosis
.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine
,
3
,
157
60
. 10.1007/s10238-003-0019-7
Bravata, D.M., Wells, C.K., Gulanski, B., Kernana, W.N., Brass, L.M., Long, J., & Concato, J. (
2005
).
Racial Disparities in Stroke Risk Factors. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status
.
Stroke
,
35
,
1507
11
. 10.1161/01.STR.0000170991.63594.b6
Carey, J.R., & Judge, D.S. (
2001
).
Principles of Biodemography with Special Reference to Human Longevity
.
Population: An English Selection
,
13
,
9
40
.
Cattin, L., Bordin, P., Fonda, M., Adamo, C., Barbone, F., Bovenzi, M., Manto, A., Pedone, C., & Pahor, M. (
1997
).
Factors Associated with Cognitive Impairment Among Older Italian Inpatients. Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell’Anziano (G.I.F.A.)
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
45
,
1324
30
.
Cigolle, C.T., Ofstedal, M.B., Tian, Z., & Blaum, C.S. (
2009
).
Comparing Models of Frailty: The Health and Retirement Study
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
57
,
830
39
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02225.x
Crimmins, E., Alley, D., Reynolds, S., Johnston, M., Karlamangla, A., & Seeman, T. (
2005
).
Changes in Biological Markers of Health: Older Americans in the 1990s
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
60
,
1409
13
.
Crimmins, E., Hayward, M.D., & Seeman, T. (
2004
).
Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Health
. In N. Anderson, R. Bulatao, & B. Cohen (Eds.),
Critical Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Differences in Health in Later Life
(pp.
310
52
).
Washington, DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Crimmins, E.M., Johnston, M., Hayward, M., & Seeman, T. (
2003
).
Age Differences in Allostatic Load: An Index of Physiological Dysregulation
.
Experimental Gerontology
,
38
,
731
34
. 10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00099-8
Crimmins, E.M., Kim, J.K., Alley, D.A., Karlamangla, A., & Seeman, T. (
2007
).
Hispanic Paradox in Biological Risk Profiles
.
American Journal of Public Health
,
97
,
1305
10
. 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091892
Crimmins, E., Kim, J.K., & Seeman, T. (
2009
).
Poverty and Biological Risk: The Earlier ‘Aging’ of the Poor
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
64
,
286
92
. 10.1093/gerona/gln010
Crimmins, E., & Seeman, T. (
2001
).
Integrating Biology into Demographic Research on Health and Aging (With a Focus on the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging)
. In C. Finch, J. Vaupel, & K. Kinsella (Eds.),
Cells and Surveys: Should Biological Measures Be Included in Social Science Research?
(pp.
9
41
).
Washington, DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Crimmins, E., & Seeman, T. (
2004
).
Integrating Biology Into the Study of Health Disparities
.
Population and Development Review
,
30
,
89
107
.
Crimmins, E. and S. Vasunilashorn. Forthcoming. “Links Between Biomarkers and Mortality.” InInternational Handbook of Aging and Mortality, edited by R. Rogers and E. Crimmins. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Crimmins, E., Vasunilashorn, S., Kim, J.K., & Alley, D. (
2008
).
Biomarkers Related to Aging in Human Populations
.
Annual Review of Clinical Chemistry
,
46
,
161
215
. 10.1016/S0065-2423(08)00405-8
Danesh, J., Collins, R., Appleby, P., & Peto, R. (
1998
).
Association of Fibrinogen, C-Reactive Protein, Albumin, or Leukocyte Count with Coronary Heart Disease: Meta-Analyses of Prospective Studies
.
Journal of the American Medical Association
,
279
,
1477
82
. 10.1001/jama.279.18.1477
Dey, D.K., Rothenberg, E., Sundh, V., Bosaeus, I., & Steen, B. (
2002
).
Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Risk for Stroke in Older People: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population Study of 70-Year-Olds
.
Journal of American Geriatrics Society
,
50
,
1510
81
. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50406.x
Dowd, J.B., & Goldman, N. (
2006
).
Do Biomarkers of Stress Mediate the Relation Between Socio-economic Status and Health?
.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
,
60
,
633
39
. 10.1136/jech.2005.040816
Ferrucci, L., Cavazzini, C., Corsi, A., Bartali, B., Russo, C.R., Laurentani, R., Bandinelli, S., & Guralnik, J.M. (
2002
).
Biomarkers of Frailty in Older Persons
.
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
,
25
,
10
15
.
Freedman, V.A., Crimmins, E., Schoeni, R.F., Spillman, B.C., Aykan, H., Kramarow, E., Land, K., Lubitz, J., Manton, K., Martin, L.G., Shinberg, D., & Waidmann, T. (
2004
).
Resolving Inconsistencies in Old-Age Disability Trends: Report From a Technical Working Group
.
Demography
,
41
,
417
41
. 10.1353/dem.2004.0022
Fried, L.P., Ferrucci, L., Darer, J., Williamson, J.D., & Anderson, G. (
2004
).
Untangling the Concepts of Disability, Frailty, and Comorbidity: Implications for Improved Targeting and Care
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
59
,
255
63
.
Fried, L.P., Tangen, C.M., Walston, J., Newman, A.B., Hirsch, C., Gottdiener, J., Seeman, T., Tracy, R., Kop, W.J., Burke, G., & McBurnie, M. (
2001
).
Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
56
,
146
56
.
Gartside, P.S., Khoury, P., & Glueck, C.J. (
1984
).
Determinants of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Blacks and Whites: The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
.
American Heart Journal
,
108
,
641
53
. 10.1016/0002-8703(84)90649-5
Geronimus, A.T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (
2006
).
‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States
.
American Journal of Public Health
,
96
,
826
33
. 10.2105/AJPH.2004.060749
Gillum, R.F., Makuc, D.M., & Feldman, J.J. (
1991
).
Pulse Rate, Coronary Heart Disease, and Death: The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study
.
American Heart Journal
,
121
,
172
77
. 10.1016/0002-8703(91)90970-S
Goldman, N., Glei, D.A., Lin, Y.H., & Weinstein, M. (
2009
).
Improving Mortality Prediction Using Biosocial Surveys
.
American Journal of Epidemiology
,
169
,
769
79
. 10.1093/aje/kwn389
Goldman, N., Turra, C.M., Glei, D.A., Seplaki, C.L., Lin, Y.H., & Weinstein, M. (
2006
).
Predicting Mortality From Clinical and Nonclinical Biomarkers
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
61
,
1070
74
.
Gordon, D.J., Probstfield, J.L., Garrison, R.J., Neaton, J.D., Castelli, W.P., Knoke, J.D., Jacobs, D.R., Bangdiwala, S., & Tyroler, H.A. (
1989
).
High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease. Four Prospective American Studies
.
Circulation
,
79
,
8
15
.
Guralnik, J.M., Simonsick, E.M., Ferrucci, L., Glynn, R.J., Berkman, L.F., Blazer, D.G., Scherr, P.A., & Wallace, R.B. (
1994
).
A Short Physical Performance Battery Assessing Lower Extremity Function: Association With Self-Reported Disability and Prediction of Mortality and Nursing Home Admission
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
49
,
85
94
.
Harris, T.B., Ferrucci, L., Tracy, R.P., Corti, M.C., Wacholder, S., Ettinger, W.H., Heimovitz, H., Cohen, H.J., & Wallace, R. (
1999
).
Associations of Elevated Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein Levels with Mortality in the Elderly
.
American Journal of Medicine
,
106
,
506
12
. 10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00066-2
Hayward, M.D., Miles, T.P., Crimmins, E.M., & Yang, Y. (
2000
).
The Significance of Socioeconomic Status in Explaining the Racial Gap in Chronic Health Conditions
.
American Sociological Review
,
65
,
910
30
. 10.2307/2657519
Hu, P., Wagle, N., Goldman, N., Weinstein, M., & Seeman, T.E. (
2007
).
The Associations Between Socioeconomic Status, Allostatic Load and Measures of Health in Older Taiwanese Persons: Taiwan Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study
.
Journal of Biosocial Science
,
39
,
545
56
. 10.1017/S0021932006001556
Izzo, J.L., Levy, D., & Black, H.R. (
2000
).
Importance of Systolic Blood Pressure in Older Americans
.
Hypertension
,
35
,
1021
24
.
Jemal, A., Ward, E., Hao, Y., & Thun, M. (
2005
).
Trends in the Leading Causes of Death in the United States, 1970–2002
.
Journal of the American Medical Association
,
294
,
1255
59
. 10.1001/jama.294.10.1255
Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Bingham, S., Luben, R., Welch, A., & Day, N. (
2004
).
Association of Hemoglobin A1c With Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Adults: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk
.
Annals of Internal Medicine
,
141
,
413
20
.
Kim, J.K., Alley, D., Hu, P., Karlamangla, A., Seeman, T., & Crimmins, E. (
2007
).
Changes in Post-menopausal Hormone Therapy Use Since 1988
.
Women’s Health Issues
,
17
,
338
41
. 10.1016/j.whi.2007.05.001
Kim, J.K., Alley, D., Seeman, T., Karlamangla, A., & Crimmins, E. (
2006
).
Recent Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Women and Men
.
Journal of Women’s Health
,
15
,
734
46
. 10.1089/jwh.2006.15.734
Koch, S., Solana, R., Dela Rosa, O., & Pawelec, G. (
2006
).
Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and T Cell Immunosenescence: A Mini Review
.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
,
127
,
538
43
. 10.1016/j.mad.2006.01.011
Kubzansky, L., Kawachi, I., & Sparrow, D. (
1999
).
Socioeconomic Status and Risk Factor Clustering in the Normative Aging Study: Any Help From the Concept of Allostatic Load?
.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
,
21
,
330
38
. 10.1007/BF02895966
Kuller, L.H., Eichner, J.E., Orchard, T.J., Grandits, G.A., McCallum, L., & Tracy, R.P. (
1991
).
The Relation Between Serum Albumin Levels and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
.
American Journal of Epidemiology
,
134
,
1266
77
.
Kulminski, A.M., Arbeev, K.G., Culminskaya, I.V., Ukraintseva, S.V., Christensen, K., & Yashin, A.I. (
2009
).
Health-Related Phenotypes and Longevity in Danish Twins
.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
64
,
1
8
. 10.1093/gerona/gln051
Kulminski, A.M., Ukraintseva, S.V., Culminskaya, I.V., Arbeev, K.G., Land, K.C., Akushevich, L., & Yashin, A.I. (
2008
).
Cumulative Deficits and Physiological Indices as Predictors of Mortality and Long Life
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
63
,
1053
59
.
Kulminski, A.M., Ukraintseva, S.V., Kulminskaya, I.V., Arbeev, K.G., Land, K., & Yashin, A.I. (
2008
).
Cumulative Deficits Better Characterize Susceptibility to Death in Elderly People Than Phenotypic Frailty: Lessons From the Cardiovascular Health Study
.
Journal of American Geriatrics Society
,
56
,
898
903
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01656.x
Kunz-Ebrecht, S.R., Krischbaum, C., & Steptoe, A. (
2004
).
Work Stress, Socioeconomic Status and Neuroendocrine Activation Over the Working Day
.
Social Science & Medicine
,
58
,
1523
30
. 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00347-2
Lievre, A., Alley, D., & Crimmins, E. (
2008
).
Educational Differentials in Life Expectancy With Cognitive Impairment Among the Elderly in the United States
.
Journal of Aging and Health
,
20
,
456
77
. 10.1177/0898264308315857
Lindau, S.T., Laumann, E.O., Levinson, W., & Waite, L.J. (
2003
).
Synthesis of Scientific Disciplines in Pursuit of Health: The Interactive Biopsychosocial Model
.
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
,
46
,
74
86
.
Lindau, S.T., & McDade, T.W. (
2007
).
Minimally Invasive and Innovative Methods for Biomeasurement in Population-Based Research
. In M. Weinstein, J.W. Vaupel, & K.W. Wachter (Eds.),
Biosocial Surveys 2007
(pp.
251
77
).
Washington DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Lunney, J.R., Lynn, J., Foley, D.J., Lipson, S., & Guralnik, J. (
2003
).
Pattern of Functional Decline at the End of Life
.
Journal of the American Medical Association
,
289
,
2387
92
. 10.1001/jama.289.18.2387
Lunney, J.R., Lynn, J., & Hogan, C. (
2002
).
Profiles of Older Medicare Decedents
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
50
,
1108
22
. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50268.x
Mannino, D.A., Buist, A.S., Petty, T.L., Enright, P.L., & Redd, S.C. (
2003
).
Lung Function and Mortality in the United States: Data From the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow Up Study
.
Thorax
,
58
,
388
93
. 10.1136/thorax.58.5.388
Manolio, T.A., Pearson, T.A., Wenger, N.K., Barrett-Connor, E., Payne, G.H., & Harlan, W.R. (
1992
).
Cholesterol and Heart Disease in Older Persons and Women. Review of an NHLBI Workshop
.
Annals of Epidemiology
,
2
,
161
76
. 10.1016/1047-2797(92)90051-Q
Manton, K.G., & Gu, X. (
2001
).
Changes in the Prevalence of Chronic Disability in the United States Black and Nonblack Population Above Age 65 From 1982 to 1999
.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
,
98
,
6354
59
. 10.1073/pnas.111152298
McDade, T.W., Williams, S., & Snodgrass, J. (
2007
).
What a Drop Can Do: Dried Blood Spots as a Minimally Invasive Method for Integrating Biomarkers Into Population-Based Research
.
Demography
,
44
,
899
925
. 10.1353/dem.2007.0038
Merkin, S.S., Basurto-Dávila, R., Karlamangla, A., Bird, C.E., Escarce, J., & Seeman, T. (
2009
).
Neighborhoods and Cumulative Biological Risk Profiles by Race/Ethnicity in a National Sample of U.S. Adults: NHANES III
.
Annals of Epidemiology
,
19
,
194
201
. 10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.12.006
Mitnitski, A.B., Graham, J.E., Mogilner, A.J., & Rockwood, K. (
2002
).
Frailty, Fitness and Late-Life Mortality in Relation to Chronological and Biological Age
.
BMC Geriatrics
,
2
,
1
8
. 10.1186/1471-2318-2-1
Mora, S., & Ridker, P.M. (
2006
).
Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER)—Can C-Reactive Protein Be Used to Target Statin Therapy in Primary Prevention?
.
American Journal of Cardiology
,
97
,
33
41
. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.11.014
Morgan, C.L., Currie, C.J., & Peters, J.R. (
2000
).
Relationship Between Diabetes and Mortality
.
Diabetes Care
,
23
,
1103
107
. 10.2337/diacare.23.8.1103
Morley, J.E., Perry, H.M., & Miller, D.R. (
2002
).
Editorial: Something About Frailty
.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
,
57
,
698
704
.
Must, A., Spadano, J., Coakley, E.H., Field, A.E., Colditz, G., & Dietz, W.H. (
1999
).
The Disease Burden Associated With Overweight and Obesity
.
Journal of the American Medical Association
,
282
,
1523
29
. 10.1001/jama.282.16.1523
Patel, P., Carrington, D., Strachan, D.P., Leatham, E., Goggin, P., Northfield, T.C., & Mendall, M.A. (
1994
).
Fibrinogen: A Link Between Chronic Infection and Coronary Heart Disease
.
Lancet
,
343
,
1634
35
. 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)93084-8
Pawelec, G., Derhovanessian, E., Larbi, A., Strindhall, J., & Wikby, A. (
2009
).
Cytomegalovirus and Human Immunosenescence
.
Review in Medical Virology
,
19
,
47
56
. 10.1002/rmv.598
Preis, S.R., Hwang, S.-J., Coady, S., Pencina, M.J., D’Agostino, R.B., Savage, P.J., Levy, D., & Fox, C.S. (
2009
).
Trends in All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Women and Men With and Without Diabetes Mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study, 1950 to 2005
.
Circulation
,
119
,
1728
35
. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.829176
Reuben, D.B., Cheh, A.I., Harris, T.B., Ferrucci, L., Rowe, J.W., Tracy, R.P, & Seeman, T.E. (
2002
).
Peripheral Blood Markers of Inflammation Predict Mortality and Functional Decline in High-Functioning Community-Dwelling Older Persons
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
50
,
638
44
. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50157.x
Ridker, P.M., Cushman, M., Stampfer, M.J., Tracy, R.P., & Hennekens, C.H. (
1997
).
Inflammation, Aspirin, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Apparently Healthy Men
.
New England Journal of Medicine
,
336
,
973
79
. 10.1056/NEJM199704033361401
Ridker, P.M., Hennekens, C.H., Buring, J.E., & Rifai, N. (
2000
).
C-Reactive Protein and Other Markers of Inflammation in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Women
.
New England Journal of Medicine
,
342
,
836
43
. 10.1056/NEJM200003233421202
Rifai, N., & Ridker, P.M. (
2001
).
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein: A Novel and Promising Marker of Coronary Heart Disease
.
Clinical Chemistry
,
47
,
403
11
.
Rohlfing, C.L., Little, R.R., Wiedmeyer, H.M., England, J.D., Madsen, R., Harris, M.I., Flegal, K.M., Eberhardt, M.S., & Goldstein, D.E. (
2000
).
Use of GHb (HbA1c) in Screening for Undiagnosed Diabetes in the U.S. Population
.
Diabetes Care
,
23
,
187
91
. 10.2337/diacare.23.2.187
Rothman, M.D., Leo-Summers, L., & Gill, T.M. (
2008
).
Prognostic Significance of Potential Frailty Criteria
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
56
,
2211
16
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02008.x
Sarnak, M.J., Katz, R., Stehman-Breen, C.O., Fried, L.F., Jenny, N.S., Psaty, B.M., Newman, A.B., Siscovick, D., & Shlipak, M.G.
the Cardiovascular Health Study
(
2005
).
Cystatin C Concentration as a Risk Factor for Heart Failure in Older Adults
.
Annals of Internal Medicine
,
142
,
497
505
.
Schmaltz, H.N., Fried, L.P., Xue, Q.L., Walston, J., Leng, S.X., & Semba, R.D. (
2005
).
Chronic Cytomegalovirus Infection and Inflammation Are Associated With Prevalent Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Women
.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
,
53
,
747
54
. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53250.x
Seeman, T., & Crimmins, E. (
2001
).
Social Environment Effects on Health and Aging: Integrating Epidemiological and Demographic Approaches and Perspectives
.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
,
954
,
88
117
. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb02749.x
Seeman, T.E., Crimmins, E., Singer, B., Bucur, A., Huang, M.-H., Gruenwald, T., Berkman, L.F., & Reuben, D.B. (
2004
).
Cumulative Biological Risk and Socio-Economic Differences in Mortality: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging
.
Social Science and Medicine
,
58
,
1985
97
. 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00402-7
Seeman, T.E., Gruenewald, T., Karlamangla, A., Sidney, S., Liu, K., McEwen, B., & Schwartz, J. (
2010
).
Modeling Multisystem Biological Risk in Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
.
American Journal of Human Biology
,
22
,
463
72
. 10.1002/ajhb.21018
Seeman, T., Merkin, S., Crimmins, E., Koretz, B., Charette, S., & Karlamangla, A. (
2008
).
Education, Income and Ethnic Differences in Cumulative Biological Risk Profiles in a National Sample of US Adults: NHANES III (1988–1994)
.
Social Science and Medicine
,
66
,
72
87
. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.027
Seidell, J., & Visscher, T. (
2000
).
Body Weight and Weight Change and Their Health Implications for the Elderly
.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
,
54
,
33
39
. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601097
Shalev, V., Chodick, G., Silber, H., Kokia, E., Jan, J., & Heymann, A. (
2009
).
Continuation of Statin Treatment and All-Cause Mortality
.
Archives of Internal Medicine
,
169
,
260
68
. 10.1001/archinternmed.2008.552
Shlipak, M.G., Sarnak, M.J., & Katz, R. (
2005
).
Cystatin C and the Risk of Death and Cardiovascular Events Among Elderly Persons
.
New England Journal of Medicine
,
352
,
2049
60
. 10.1056/NEJMoa043161
Turra, C.M., Goldman, N., Seplaki, C.L., Glei, D.A., Lin, Y.-H., & Weinstein, M. (
2005
).
Determinants of Mortality at Older Ages: The Role of Biological Markers of Chronic Disease
.
Population and Development Review
,
31
,
675
98
. 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00093.x
Vasunilashorn, S., & Crimmins, E.M. (
2008
).
Biodemography: Integrating Disciplines to Explain ‘Aging.’
. In V.L. Bengtson, D. Gans, N.M. Putney, & M. Silverstein (Eds.),
Handbook of Theories of Aging
(pp.
63
85
).
New York
:
Springer
.
Vaupel, J. (
2004
).
The Biodemography of Aging
.
Aging, Health, and Public Policy: Population and Development Review
,
30
,
48
62
.
Verbrugge, L.M., & Jette, A.M. (
1994
).
The Disablement Process
.
Social Science and Medicine
,
38
,
1
14
. 10.1016/0277-9536(94)90294-1
Verhoef, P., Stampfer, M.J., Buring, J.E., Gaziano, J.M., Allen, R.H., Stabler, S.P., Reynolds, R.D., Kok, F.J., Hennekens, C.H., & Willett, W.C. (
1996
).
Homocysteine Metabolism and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Relation with Vitamins B6, B12, and Folate
.
American Journal of Epidemiology
,
143
,
845
59
.
Weinstein, M., Vaupel, J.W., & Wachter, K.W. (
2008
).
Biosocial Surveys
.
Washington, DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Weir, D. (
2007
).
Elastic Powers: The Integration of Biomarkers into the Health and Retirement Study
. In M. Weinstein, J.W. Vaupel, & K.W. Wachter (Eds.),
Biosocial Surveys
(pp.
78
95
).
Washington, DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Weverling-Rijnsburger, A., Jonkers, I., van Exel, E., Gussekloo, J., & Westendorp, R. (
2003
).
High-Density vs. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol as the Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke in Old Age
.
Archives of Internal Medicine
,
163
,
1549
54
. 10.1001/archinte.163.13.1549
Yashin, A.I., & Iachine, I.A. (
1997
).
How Frailty Models Can Be Used for Evaluating Longevity Limits: Taking Advantage of an Interdisciplinary Approach
.
Demography
,
34
,
31
48
. 10.2307/2061658
Zamboni, M., Mazzali, G., Zoico, E., Harris, T., Meigs, J., Francesco, V., Fantin, F., Bissoli, L., & Bosello, O. (
2005
).
Health Consequences of Obesity in the Elderly: A Review of Four Unresolved Questions
.
International Journal of Obesity
,
29
,
1011
29
. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803005