Abstract

This article draws on evidence from an exploratory survey of living situations to assess the validity of assumptions about residence and to offer methodological innovations to improve coverage of people with tenuous attachment to households. These innovations include more inclusive probes and questions used to compile the roster of household residents; a review of the places a person stayed the previous few months; and a Residential Attachment scale that measures strength of attachment to households. This scale shows that it takes more probing to list tenuously attached people than most surveys do, suggesting that tenuously attached people are likely to be omitted from the typical survey roster. The Residential Attachment scale is correlated with social and economic participation in households, suggesting that participation is fairly high even among those with tenuous or no residential attachment.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Adams, T.S., & Krejsa, E.A. (
2002
).
Results of the Person Followup/Evaluation Followup Review for the Census 2000 Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association (Survey Research Methods Section)
(pp.
1
6
).
Alexandria, VA
:
American Statistical Association
.
Bates, N.A., & Gerber, E.R. (
1998
).
Temporary Mobility and Reporting of Usual Residence
.
Survey Methodology
,
24
(
1
),
89
98
.
Carlson, M.J., & McLanahan, S.S. (
2004
).
Early Father Involvement in Fragile Families
. In R. Day, & M. Lamb (Eds.),
Conceptualizing and Measuring Father Involvement
(pp.
241
71
).
Mahwah, NJ
:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
.
Casper, L.M., & Bianchi, S.M. (
2002
).
Continuity and Change in the American Family
.
Thousand Oaks, CA
:
Sage
.
Clemence, T.G. 1986. Place of Abode. Unpublished manuscript. U.S. Census Bureau.
Coley, R.L., & Morris, J.E. (
2002
).
Comparing Father and Mother Reports of Father Involvement Among Low-Income Minority Families
.
Journal of Marriage and Family
,
64
,
982
97
. 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00982.x
de la Puente, M. (
1993
).
Why Are People Missed or Erroneously Included by the Census: A Summary of Findings From Ethnographic Coverage Reports
1993 Proceedings of the Conference on Undercounted Ethnic Populations
(pp.
29
66
).
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration
.
Duncan, O.D. (
1984
).
Measurement and Structure
. In C. Turner, & E. Martin (Eds.),
Surveying Subjective Phenomena
(pp.
179
229
).
New York
:
Russell Sage
.
Ellis, Y. (
1994
).
Categorical Data Analysis of Census Omissions
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Ellis, Y. (
1995
).
Examination of Census Omission and Erroneous Enumeration Based on 1990 Ethnographic Studies of Census Coverage
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association (Survey Research Methods Section)
(pp.
515
20
).
Alexandria, VA
:
American Statistical Association
.
Fay, R.E. (
1985
).
A Jackknifed Chi-Squared Test for Complex Samples
.
Journal of the American Statistical Association
,
80
,
148
57
. 10.2307/2288065
Fay, R.E. (
1989
).
An Analysis of Within-Household Undercoverage in the Current Population Survey
Proceedings, Annual Research Conference
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Fay, R.E. (
1998
).
VPLX Program Documentation
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Fay, R.E., & Turner, C.F. (
1989
).
RASCHPLX: Rasch Analysis for Contingency Tables With Complex Sample Designs
.
Washington, DC
:
National Academy of Sciences
.
Feldpausch, R. (
2001
).
Census Person Duplication and the Corresponding A.C.E. Enumeration Status
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Garfinkel, I., McLanahan, S.S., & Hanson, T.L. (
1998
).
A Patchwork Portrait of Nonresident Fathers
. In I. Garfinkel, S. McLanahan, D. Meyer, & J. Seltzer (Eds.),
Fathers Under Fire: The Revolution in Child Support Enforcement
(pp.
31
59
).
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Gerber, E.R. (
1990
).
Calculating Residence: A Cognitive Approach to Household Membership Among Low Income Blacks
.
Washington, DC
:
Census Bureau
.
Gerber, E.R. (
1994
).
The Language of Residence: Respondent Understandings and Census Rules
.
Washington, DC
:
Center for Survey Methods Research, U.S. Census Bureau
.
Gerber, E.R., Wellens, T.R., & Keeley, C. (
1996
).
‘Who Lives Here?: The Use of Vignettes in Household Roster Research
Proceedings of the American Association for Public Opinion Research
(pp.
962
67
).
Alexandria, VA
:
American Statistical Association
.
Goodman, L.A. (
1978
).
Analyzing Qualitative/Categorical Data
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Griffin, D., & Moriarity, C. (
1992
).
Characteristics of Census Errors
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Hainer, P. (
1987
).
A Brief and Qualitative Study Exploring the Reasons for Census Coverage Error Among Low Income Black Households
.
Washington, DC
:
Census Bureau
.
Hofferth, S.L., Pleck, J., Stueve, J.L., Bianchi, S., & Sayer, L. (
2002
).
The Demography of Fathers: What Fathers Do
. In C. Tamis-LeMonde, & N. Cabrera (Eds.),
Handbook of Father Involvement
(pp.
63
90
).
Mahwah, NJ
:
Lawrence Earlbaum Associates
.
Martin, E. (
1999
).
Who Knows Who Lives Here? Within-Household Disagreements as a Source of Survey Coverage Error
.
Public Opinion Quarterly
,
63
,
220
36
. 10.1086/297712
Martin, E.A., Fay, R.E., & Krejsa, E.A. (
2002
).
Analysis of Questionnaire Errors in Survey Measurements of Census Coverage
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association (Survey Research Methods Section)
(pp.
2260
65
).
Alexandria, VA
:
American Statistical Association
.
Moriarity, C. (
1993
).
Characteristics of Census Error—Additional Results
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
D.L. Cork, & P.R. Voss (
2006
).
Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census
.
Washington, DC
:
National Academies Press
.
Rasch, G. (
1960
).
Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S.S. (
2001
).
Fragile Families: Sample and Design
.
Children and Youth Services Review
,
23
,
303
26
. 10.1016/S0190-7409(01)00141-4
Robinson, J.G. 2001. “ESCAP II: Demographic Analysis Results.” Executive Steering Committee for A.C.E. Policy II, Report No. 1. Available online at http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/pdf/ Report1.PDF
Robinson, J.G., Ahmed, B., Das Gupta, P., & Woodrow, K. (
1993
).
Estimation of Population Coverage in the 1990 United States Census Based on Demographic Analysis
.
Journal of the American Statistical Association
,
88
,
1061
79
. 10.2307/2290799
Rodriguez, N. and J.S. Hagan. 1991. “Investigating Census Coverage and Content Among the Undocumented: An Ethnographic Study of Latin Tenants in Houston, Texas.” Ethnographic Evaluation of the 1990 Decennial Census Report No. 3. Available online at http://www.census. gov/srd/papers/pdf/ev91-3.pdf
Schwede, L., Blumberg, R.L., & Chan, A.Y. (
2006
).
Complex Ethnic Households in America
.
Lanham, MD
:
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
.
Schwede, L., & Ellis, Y. (
1994
).
Exploring Associations Between Subjective and Objective Assessments of Household Membership: The Living Situation Survey
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association (Survey Research Methods Section)
(pp.
325
30
).
Alexandria, VA
:
American Statistical Association
.
Skinner, C.J., Holt, D., & Smith, T.M.F. (
1989
).
Analysis of Complex Surveys
.
New York
:
Wiley
.
Sullivan, M.L. 1990. An Ethnographic Study of the Number of Persons in Households in Selected New York City Neighborhoods. Ethnographic Exploratory Research Report No. 13. Available online at http://www.census.gov/srd/papers/pdf/ex90-13.pdf
Sweet, E.M. (
1994
).
Roster Research Results From the Living Situation Survey
Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference
(pp.
415
33
).
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Sweet, E.M., & Alberti, N.S. (
1994
).
Coverage Implications of Using the Term ‘Usual Residence.’
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Census Bureau
.
Tourangeau, R., Shapiro, G., Kearney, A., & Ernst, L. (
1997
).
Who Lives Here? Survey Undercoverage and Household Roster Questions
.
Journal of Official Statistics
,
13
,
1
18
.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. “Monthly Estimates of the United States Population: April 1, 1980 to July 1, 1999, With Short-Term Projections to November 1, 2000.” Population Estimates Program. Available online at http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/1990s/nat-total.txt
U.S. Census Bureau. 2001. “Report of the Executive Steering Committee for Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Policy on Adjustment for Non-Redistricting Uses.” Available online at http://www.census. gov/dmd/www/pdf/Recommend2.pdf
Valentine, C., & Valentine, B.L. (
1971
).
Missing Men: A Comparative Methodological Study of Underenumeration and Related Problems
.
Washington, DC
:
Census Bureau
.
Wellens, T., & Gerber, E. (
1996
).
ICM Cognitive Evaluation
.
Washington, DC
:
Center for Survey Methods Research, Statistical Research Division, U.S. Census Bureau
.