Abstract

Research on changes in women’s parenting has focused primarily on their increased likelihood of combining parenthood with paid employment, exploring the pressures that result from this “second shift” or “double burden.” This article complements this approach by focusing instead on the likely reduction in the help that mothers of small children have received as declines both in fertility and the coresidence of nonnuclear adults have reduced the number of other women in the household. Using national census data for the period 1880 to 2000, we show a substantial decline in the presence and availability of other females in the household, as fewer are coresident and more of those who are coresident are employed or in school. Although all mothers experience this decline, it is most acute for mothers working for pay in nonagricultural activities.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Bianchi, S.M., Milkie, M.A., Sayer, L.C., & Robinson, J.P. (
2000
).
“Is Anyone Doing the Housework?”
.
Social Forces
,
79
,
191
228
. 10.2307/2675569
Budig, M., & Folbre, N. (
2004
).
“Activity, Proximity, or Responsibility: Measuring Parental Childcare Time.”
. In N. Folbre, & M. Bittman (Eds.),
Family Time: The Social Organization of Care
(pp.
51
68
).
New York
:
Routledge
.
Das Gupta, P. (
1993
).
“Standardization and Decomposition of Rates: A User’s Manual.”
.
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
Folbre, N., Yoon, J., Finnoff, K., & Fuligni, A. (
2005
).
“By What Measure? Family Time Devoted to Children in the United States.”
.
Demography
,
42
,
373
90
. 10.1353/dem.2005.0013
Gershuny, J., & Robinson, J.P. (
1988
).
“Historical Changes in Household Division of Labor.”
.
Demography
,
25
,
537
52
. 10.2307/2061320
Goldin, C. (
1990
).
Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Goldscheider, F., & Goldscheider, C. (
1994
).
“Leaving and Returning Home in the Twentieth Century.”
.
Population Reference Bureau Bulletin
,
48
,
4
4
.
Goldscheider, F., & Waite, L. (
1991
).
New Families, No Families? The Transformation of the American Home
.
Berkeley, CA
:
University of California Press
.
Griswold, R.L. (
1993
).
Fatherhood in America: A History
.
New York
:
Basic Books
.
Hacker, D.J. (
2003
).
“Rethinking the ‘Early’ Decline of Marital Fertility in the United States.”
.
Demography
,
40
,
605
20
.
Hochschild, A., & Machung, A. (
1989
).
The Second Shift
.
New York
:
Viking
.
King, M.L., & Magnuson, D.L. (
1995
).
“Perspectives on Historical U.S. Census Undercounts.”
.
Social Science History
,
19
,
455
66
. 10.2307/1171475
Kobrin, F.E. (
1976
).
“The Fall in Household Size and the Rise of the Primary Individual in the United States.”
.
Demography
,
13
,
127
38
. 10.2307/2060425
Kramarow, E. (
1995
).
“The Elderly Who Live Alone in the United States: Historical Perspectives on Household Change.”
.
Demography
,
32
,
335
52
. 10.2307/2061684
Mason, K.O., & Kuhlthau, K. (
1992
).
“The Perceived Impact of Child Care Costs on Women’s Labor Supply and Fertility.”
.
Demography
,
29
,
523
43
. 10.2307/2061850
Pampel, F. (
1983
).
“Changes in the Propensity to Live Alone: Evidence From Consecutive Cross-Sectional Surveys, 1960–1976.”
.
Demography
,
20
,
433
47
. 10.2307/2061112
Raley, R.K. (
2001
).
“Increasing Fertility in Cohabiting Unions: Evidence for the Second Demographic Transition in the United States?”
.
Demography
,
38
,
59
66
. 10.1353/dem.2001.0008
Raley, R.K., Harris, K.M., & Rindfuss, R.R. (
2000
).
“The Quality and Comparability of Child Care Data in U.S. Surveys.”
.
Social Science Research
,
29
,
356
81
. 10.1006/ssre.2000.0673
Robinson, G.J. 1988. “Perspectives on the Completeness of Coverage of Population of the United States Decennial Censuses.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, April 21–23.
Rosenbaum, E., & Gilbertson, G. (
1995
).
“Mothers’ Labor Force Participation in New York City: A Reappraisal of the Influence of Household Extension.”
.
Journal of Marriage and the Family
,
57
,
243
49
. 10.2307/353833
Ruggles, S. 1996. “Living Arrangements of the Elderly in the United States.” Pp. 254-63 in Aging and Intergenerational Relations: Historical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives, edited by T.K. Hareven. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
Ruggles, S., & Brower, S. (
2003
).
“The Measurement of Household and Family Composition in the United States, 1850–2000.”
.
Population and Development Review
,
29
,
73
101
. 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00073.x
Ruggles, S., M. Sobek, T. Alexander, C.A. Fitch, R. Goeken, P.K. Hall, M. King, and C. Ronnander. 2004. “Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 3.0.” Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Available online at http://www.ipums.org
Sandberg, J.F., & Hofferth, S.L. (
2001
).
“Changes in Children’s Time With Parents: United States, 1981–1997.”
.
Demography
,
38
,
423
36
. 10.1353/dem.2001.0031
Sandefur, G. and N.B. Tuma. 1987. “Social and Economic Trends Among the Aged in the United States, 1940–1985.” Discussion Paper No. 849-87. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Santi, L.L. (
1990
).
“Household Headship Among Unmarried Persons in the United States, 1970–1985.”
.
Demography
,
27
,
219
32
. 10.2307/2061450
Sassler, S. (
1996
).
“Feathering the Nest or Flying the Coop? Ethnic and Gender Differences in Young Adults’ Coresidence in 1910.”
.
Journal of Family History
,
21
,
446
66
. 10.1177/036319909602100403
Sayer, L. (
2005
).
“Gender, Time and Inequality: Trends in Women’s and Men’s Paid Work, Unpaid Work and Free Time.”
.
Social Forces
,
84
,
285
303
. 10.1353/sof.2005.0126
Short, S.E., Chen, F., Entwisle, B., & Zhai, F. (
2002
).
“Maternal Work and Time Spent in Child Care in China: A Multimethod Approach.”
.
Population and Development Review
,
28
,
31
57
. 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2002.00031.x
Tienda, M., & Glass, J. (
1985
).
“Household Structure and Labor Force Participation of Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers.”
.
Demography
,
22
,
381
94
. 10.2307/2061067
U.S. Census Bureau. 2001. Press release accessed online at http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/ www/2001/cn03attach.pdf
Walters, P.B. (
1984
).
“Occupational and Labor Market Effects on Secondary and Postsecondary Educational Expansion in the United States: 1922 to 1979.”
.
American Sociological Review
,
49
,
659
71
. 10.2307/2095423
Watkins, S., Menken, J., & Bongaarts, J. (
1987
).
“Demographic Foundations of Family Change.”
.
American Sociological Review
,
52
,
346
58
. 10.2307/2095354
Wong, R., & Levine, R.E. (
1992
).
“The Effect of Household Structure on Women’s Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence From Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico.”
.
Economic Development and Cultural Change
,
41
,
89
102
. 10.1086/451997
Zelizer, V. (
1985
).
Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children
.
New York
:
Basic Books
.