Abstract

Two theoretical perspectives have dominated debates about the impact of development on gender stratification: modernization theory, which argues that gender inequalities decline with economic growth, and the “women in development” perspective, which argues that development may initially widen gender gaps. Analyzing cross-sectional surveys and time-series data from China, this article indicates the relevance of both perspectives: while girls’ educational opportunities were clearly more responsive than boys’ to better household economic circumstances, the era of market transition in the late 1970s and early 1980s failed to accelerate and, in fact, may have temporarily slowed progress toward gender equity.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

4-1 Population Aged 6 and Over by Age, Sex and Education Attainment
. (
2003
).
Beijing
:
All China Marketing Research Co
.
Assié-Lumumba, N’dri Thérè se (
2000
).
Educational and Economic Reforms, Gender Equity, and Access to Schooling in Africa
.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology
,
41
,
89-120
89-120
.
Boserup, E. (
1989
).
Woman’s Role in Economic Development
.
London
:
Earthscan
.
Bray, M. (
1996
).
Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia
.
Washington, DC
:
World Bank
.
Brown, P., & Park, A. (
2002
).
Education and Poverty in Rural China
.
”Economics of Education Review
,
21
,
523-41
523-41
.
Buchmann, C. (
1996
).
The Debt Crisis, Structural Adjustment and Women’s Education: Implications for Status and Social Development
.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology
,
37
,
5-30
5-30
. 10.1177/002071529603700102
Buchmann, C., & Hannum, E. (
2001
).
Education and Stratification in Developing Countries: A Review of Theories and Empirical Research
.
Annual Review of Sociology
,
27
,
77-102
77-102
. 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.77
Cameron, L., & Worswick, C. (
2001
).
Education Expenditure Responses to Crop Loss in Indonesia: A Gender Bias
.
Economic Development and Cultural Change
,
49
,
351-63
351-63
.
Carter, C.A. (
1997
).
The Urban-Rural Income Gap in China: Implications for the Global Food Market
.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics
,
79
,
1410-18
1410-18
.
T4-1. Population By Age and Sex, 1990,” “T5-5. Population Aged 6 and Over by Educational Level, Educational Attainment Status and Age
. (
1993
).
Beijing
:
China Statistical Publishing House
.
“Charity Returns Over 2.5 Million Children to School.” 2002. People’s Daily. Available on-line at http://english.people.com.cn/200212/21/eng20021221_108838.shtml
Cheng, K.-M. (
1996
).
The Quality of Primary Education: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province, China
.
Paris
:
International Institute for Educational Planning
.
Connelly, R., & Zheng, Z. (
2003
).
Determinants of School Enrollment and Completion of 10 to 18 Year Olds in China
.
Economics of Education Review
,
22
,
379-88
379-88
. 10.1016/S0272-7757(02)00058-4
Croll, E. (
2001
).
Endangered Daughters: Discrimination and Development in Asia
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Das Gupta, M. (
1987
).
Selective Discrimination Against Female Children in Rural Punjab, India
.
Population and Development Review
,
13
,
77-100
77-100
. 10.2307/1972121
Davis, D. (
1989
).
Chinese Social Welfare: Policies and Outcomes
.
China Quarterly
,
119
,
577-97
577-97
. 10.1017/S0305741000022943
Eichen, M., & Zhang, M. (
1993
).
Annex: The 1988 Household Sample Survey-Data Description and Availability
. In K. Griffin, & R. Zhao (Eds.),
The Distribution of Income in China
(pp.
341-46
341-46
).
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
.
Entwisle, B., Henderson, G.E., & Short, S.E. (
1995
).
Gender and Family Businesses in Rural China
.
American Sociological Review
,
60
,
36-57
36-57
. 10.2307/2096344
Filmer, D. (
1999
).
The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth
.
World Bank
:
Washington, DC
.
Forsythe, N., Korzeniewicz, R.P., & Durrant, V. (
2000
).
Gender Inequalities and Economic Growth: A Longitudinal Evaluation
.
Economic Development and Cultural Change
,
48
,
573-618
573-618
. 10.1086/452611
Goodkind, D. (
1995
).
Rising Gender Inequality in Vietnam Since Reunification
.
Pacific Affairs
,
68
,
342-59
342-59
. 10.2307/2761129
Greenhalgh, S. (
1994
).
Controlling Births and Bodies in Village China
.
American Ethnologist
,
21
(
1
),
3-30
3-30
. 10.1525/ae.1994.21.1.02a00010
Griffin, K. (
1995
).
Poverty: Concepts and Measurement
. In K. Griffin (Ed.),
Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia
(pp.
27-44
27-44
).
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
.
Hannum, E. (
1999
).
Political Change and the Urban-Rural Gap in Education in China, 1949–1990
.
Comparative Education Review
,
43
,
193-211
193-211
. 10.1086/447554
Hannum, E. (
2003
).
Poverty and Basic Education in Rural China: Villages, Households, and Girls’ and Boys’ Enrollment
.
Comparative Education Review
,
47
,
141-59
141-59
. 10.1086/376542
Hannum, E., & Kong, P. (
2004
).
Family Sources of Educational Gender Inequality in Rural China: A Critical Assessment
.
Philadelphia
:
Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania
.
Hannum, E. and J. Liu. Forthcoming. “Adolescent Transitions to Adulthood in China.” In Studies on the Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, edited by J. Behrman, C. Lloyd, N. Stromquist, and B. Cohen. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science Press.
Hannum, E., & Xie, Y. (
1994
).
Trends in Educational Gender Inequality in China: 1949–1985
.
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
,
13
,
73-98.
73-98.
.
Hardin, J.W. (
1996
).
Bivariate Probit Models
.
Stata Technical Bulletin
,
33
(
16
),
15-20
15-20
.
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 1995. “Family Planning in China.” Government White Paper, August 1995, Beijing. English translation available online at http://www.china.org.cn/e-white
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 2000. “China’s Population and Development in the 21st Century.” Government White Paper, December 2000, Beijing. English translation available on-line at http://www.china.org.cn/ e-white
Jacka, T. (
1997
).
Women’s Work in Rural China: Change and Continuity in an Era of Reform
.
Cambridge, England
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Judd, E.R. (
1994
).
Gender and Power in Rural North China
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Khan, A.R., & Riskin, C. (
1998
).
Income Inequality in China: Composition, Distribution and Growth of Household Income, 1988 to 1995
.
China Quarterly
,
154
,
221-53
221-53
. 10.1017/S0305741000002022
King, E., & Hill, M.A. (
1993
).
Women’s Education in Developing Countries
.
Baltimore, MD
:
John’s Hopkins University Press
.
Knight, J., & Li, S. (
1993
).
The Determinants of Educational Attainment in China
. In K. Griffin, & R. Zhao (Eds.),
The Distribution of Income in China
(pp.
285-323
285-323
).
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
.
Knodel, J., & Jones, G.W. (
1996
).
Post-Cairo Population Policy: Does Promoting Girls’ Schooling Miss the Mark?
.
Population and Development Review
,
22
,
683-702
683-702
. 10.2307/2137805
Lantican, C.P., Gladwin, C.H., & Seale, J.L. (
1996
).
Income and Gender Inequalities in Asia: Testing Alternative Theories of Development
.
Economic Development and Cultural Change
,
44
,
235-63
235-63
. 10.1086/452212
Lavely, W., Xiao, Z., Li, B., & Freedman, R. (
1990
).
The Rise in Female Education in China: National and Regional Patterns
.
China Quarterly
,
121
,
61-93
61-93
. 10.1017/S0305741000013515
Lewin, K., & Wang, Y. (
1994
).
Implementing Basic Education in China: Progress and Prospects in Rich, Poor and National Minority Areas
.
Paris
:
International Institute for Educational Planning
.
Lin, J. (
1993
).
Education in Post-Mao China
.
Westport, CT
:
Praeger
.
Achievement of Education in China: Statistics 1949-1983
. (
1984
).
Beijing
:
People’s Education Press
.
Papanek, H. (
1985
).
Class and Gender in Education-Employment Linkages
.
Comparative Education Review
,
29
,
317-46
317-46
. 10.1086/446525
Park, A., W. Li, and S. Wang. 2002. “School Equity in Rural China.” Paper presented at the Association of Asian Studies, April 4-8, Washington, DC.
Piazza, A., & Liang, E.H. (
1998
).
Reducing Absolute Poverty in China: Current Status and Issues
.
Journal of International Affairs
,
52
,
253-64
253-64
.
Rama, M. (
2001
).
The Gender Implications of Public Sector Downsizing: The Reform Program of Vietnam
.
Washington, DC
:
World Bank
.
Schultz, T.P. (
1995
).
Investments in the Schooling and Health of Women and Men: Quantities and Returns
. In T.P. Schultz (Ed.),
Investments in Women’s Human Capital
(pp.
15-50
15-50
).
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Shavit, Y., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (
1993
).
Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries
.
Boulder
:
Westview Press
.
Smith, S. (
1995
).
Human Capital Formation Under Conditions of Acute Resource Scarcity
. In K. Griffin (Ed.),
Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia
(pp.
63-76
63-76
).
New York
:
St. Martin’s Pres
.
Smith, S., & Lannert, J. (
1995
).
Human Capital: the Health and Well-being of the Population
. In K. Griffin (Ed.),
Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia
(pp.
77-89
77-89
).
New York
:
St. Martin’s Press
.
“’Spring Bud’ Program Helps 1.15 Million Girl Dropouts.” 2002. Xinhua News Agency June 1. Available on-line at http://www.china.org.cn/english/SO-e/33668.htm
Stash, S., & Hannum, E. (
2001
).
Who Goes to School? Educational Stratification by Gender, Caste and Ethnicity in Nepal
.
Comparative Education Review
,
45
,
354-78
354-78
. 10.1086/447676
State Council Population Census Office, and State Statistical Bureau Department of Population Statistics
(
1991
).
Ten Percent Sampling Tabulation on the 1990 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China (Computer Tabulation)
.
Beijing
:
China Statistical Publishing House
.
National Sample Survey on the Situation of China’s Children
. (
1992
).
Beijing
:
State Statistical Bureau
.
1992 National Sample Survey on the Situation of Children: National Final Report
. (
1993
).
Beijing
:
State Statistical Bureau
.
Stockman, N. (
1994
).
Gender Inequality and Social Structure in Urban China
.
Sociology
,
28
,
759-77
759-77
. 10.1177/0038038594028003007
Stromquist, N.P. (
1989
).
Determinants of Educational Participation and Achievement of Women in the Third World: A Review of the Evidence and a Theoretical Critique
.
Review of Educational Research
,
59
,
143-83
143-83
.
Summerfield, G. (
1994
).
Economic Reform and the Employment of Chinese Women
.
Journal of Economic Issues
,
28
,
715-32
715-32
.
Treiman, D.J. (
1970
).
Industrialization and Social Stratification
. In E.O. Laumann (Ed.),
Social Stratification: Research and Theory for the 1970s
(pp.
207-34
207-34
).
Indianapolis, IN
:
Bobbs-Merrill
.
Treiman, D.J. 2001. “Trends in Gender Inequality in China.” Paper presented at the Harvard Conference on Education Reform in China, July 14-15, Cambridge, MA.
Tsang, M.C. (
1994
).
Costs of Education in China: Issues of Resource Mobilization, Equality, Equity, and Efficiency
.
Education Economics
,
2
,
287-312
287-312
. 10.1080/09645299400000028
Tsui, K.-Y. (
1997
).
Economic Reform and Attainment in Basic Education in China
.
China Quarterly
,
149
,
104-27
104-27
. 10.1017/S0305741000043794
Tsui, M., & Rich, L. (
2002
).
The Only Child and Educational Opportunity for Girls in Urban China
.
Gender and Society
,
16
(
1
),
74-92
74-92
. 10.1177/0891243202016001005
UNESCO. n.d.a. UNESCO Institute for Statistics World Education Indicators. Available on-line at http://unescostat.unesco.org/en/stats/stats0.htm
UNESCO. n.d.b. UNESCO Institute for Statistics Database, National Education Systems, Country: China. Available on-line at http://www.uis.unesco.org/pagesen/DBSysCri.asp
United Nations. n.d. United Nations Common Database. “Education Enrolment Ratio, Net, Primary Level, by Sex (UNESCO)” [code9954]. Available on-line at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/ cdb/cdb_series_xrxx.asp?series_code=29954
U.S. Census Bureau. n.d. International Data Base, Table 028. Age-Specific Fertility Rates and Selected Derived Measures, China 1990–2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Available on-line at http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbacc.html
China: Strategies for Reducing Poverty in the 1990s
. (
1992
).
Washington, DC
:
World Bank
.
World Bank. n.d. World Development Indicators (WDI) On-Line, Total Fertility Rate (Births per Woman), China, 1960-2000. Available on-line at http://devdata.worldbank.org/dataonline
Zellner, A., & Lee, T.H. (
1965
).
Joint Estimation of Relationships Involving Discrete Random Variables
.
Econometrica
,
33
,
382-94
382-94
.
Zhang, X., & Kanbur, R. (
2003
).
Spatial Inequality in Education and Healthcare in China
.
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
:
Department of Applied Economic and Management
.
Zheng, Z., Niu, R., & Xing, L. (
2002
).
Determinants of Primary and Middle School Enrollment of 10–18 Year Olds in China
.
Population and Economics
,
131
(
2
),
28-37
28-37
.