Summary

The pilot family planning studies reported in this paper were conducted in a rural area adjacent to the city of Dacca in East Pakistan. It reports the preliminary findings of action-research in the implementation of educational efforts to reach rural villagers of a developing country.

Preliminary analyses of the records identify two significant educational problems: (1) most of the villagers (85–90 percent of the couples) who initially accepted contraceptives do not truly adopt and become continuing users and (2) the continuing users (10–15 percent of the initial users) are generally characterized by large families. (Later data show an even lower percentage of continuing users.)

The field activities in the development of various educational approaches to family planning are described. Three separate geographic areas (from 15,000 to 20,000 population) were each approached in a different way, varying in the number and educational qualifications of the workers and in the degree of involvement of village leadership. Preliminary analyses of field records indicate that these variations of approach apparently have little effect on the percentage of the population willing to accept contraceptive supplies.

It is the opinion of the writers that more intensive educational efforts are necessary at the village level to develop social support for continuing use of contraception and to gain adoption of contraception by younger married couples primarily for spacing of births.

The impact of introduction of the IUCD in populations where condoms and foam tablets have been available for one to two years has also been reported. Preliminary findings indicate that the IUCD encourages adoption by previous non-users and may increase the over-all percentage of contraceptive users.

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Resumen

Los estudios piloto en planeamiento familiar que se reportan en este trabajo fueron conducidos en una zona rural adyacente a la ciudad de Daca en Pakistán Este. Se informa sobre los hallasgos preliminares de investigación-acción en la implementación de los esfuerzos educacionales para alcanzar a los pobladores rurales de un pals en desarrollo.

El análisis preliminar de los registros permite identificar dos problemas educacionales significativos: (1) la mayor parte de los pobladores (85 a 90 por ciento de las parejas) que inicialmente aceptaron los anticonceptivos, no los adoptaron realmente ni los usaron continuamente, y (2) los que continuaron usdndolos (10 a 15 de los usuarios iniciales) generalmente tenían familias numerosas. (Datos posteriores muestran porcentajes aún menores de usuarios continuos.)

Se describen las actividades do campo en ci desarrollo de diferentes enfoques educacionales. Tres áreas geográficas diferentes (de 15,000 a 20,000 habitantes) fueron tratadas en forma distinta, con variaciones en el número y las calificaciones educacionales de los trabajadores y en ci grado de participación de los líderes de las aldeas. El análisis preliminar de los registros de campo indica que estas variaciones en el enfoque, aparentemente, tienen poco efecto sobre el porcentaje de la población dispuesto a ace ptar el sumunistro do anticonceptivos.

En opinión de los autores se necesitan esfuerzos educacionales más intensos a nivel de la aldea para dosarrollar apoyo social al uso continuo de las prácticas anticonceptivas y poder conseguir que las parejas do casados jóvenes adopten los anticonceptivos fundamentalmente para espaciar los nacimientos.

El impacto de la introducción de los IUCD en poblaciones en las que el condón y las tabletas efervescentes han estado disponibles por uno a dos años, ha sido también motivo de este informe. Los hallazgos preliminares indican que los IUCD estimulan la adopción en los que antes no usaban y pueden aumentar el porcentaje global do usuarios do anticonceptivos.

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References

1
Government of Pakistan, “Agreement between Ministry of Health, Labour, and Social Welfare of Pakistan, the University of Dacca, and the Population Council of New York” (1961).
2
Ibid. Government of Pakistan, “Agreement between Ministry of Health, Labour, and Social Welfare of Pakistan, the University of Dacca, and the Population Council of New York” (1961).
3
Ibid. Government of Pakistan, “Agreement between Ministry of Health, Labour, and Social Welfare of Pakistan, the University of Dacca, and the Population Council of New York” (1961).
4
David Yaukey, Beryl J. Roberts, and W. Griffliths, “Husbands’ vs. Wives’ Responses to a Fertility Survey,” Population Studies, July, 1965.
5
Beryl J. Roberts, W. Griffiths, G. M. Shimmel, and Elizabeth W. Clark, “A Postoperative Study of Ligatees in Dacca, East Pakistan,” Journal of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Vol. IV, January, 1964.
6
Beryl J. Roberts, David Yaukey, William Griffiths, Elizabeth W. Clark, A. B. M. Shafiullah, and Raiunnessa Huq, “Family Planning, Survey in Dacca, East Pakistan,” Demography, Vol. II, 1965.
7
Clark, Elizabeth W., Roberts, Beryl J., & Griffiths, William (
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Rashid, Haroun Er (
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East Pakistan: A Systematic Regional Geography and Its Development Planning Aspects
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9
See Warren C. Robinson, William Seltzer, and Sultan Hashmi, “Quasi-stable Population Estimates for Pakistan,” Pakistan Development Review, Vol. VI (Winter, 1965).
12
Population Census of Pakistan, 1961: District Census Report
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14
Unpublished preliminary data from The Dacca Family Growth Study (Dacca: East Pakistan Research and Evaluation Center).
15
Roberts et al., A Postoperative Study…, Beryl J. Roberts, W. Griffiths, G. M. Shimmel, and Elizabeth W. Clark, “A Postoperative Study of Ligatees in Dacca, East Pakistan,” Journal of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Vol. IV, January, 1964 p. 12.
16
Begum, Akhtar Iqbal (
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17
Semi-annual Report, July–December, 1964 (Taiwan: Taiwan Population Studies Center), p. 15.