Abstract

To what degree do immigrants reduce their high rates of residential overcrowding with increasing length of residence in the United States? This question is addressed through the application of a “double cohort” method that nests birth cohorts within immigration cohorts. This method enables duration of immigration effects to be separated from aging effects as cohorts pass through life course phases, when family sizes may be growing or shrinking. The analysis finds that cohort trends differ sharply from the cross-sectional pattern observed at a single point in time. Cohorts’ growth in income is found to contribute substantially to the decline in overcrowding over time. Cohort trends among Hispanic immigrants, however, diverge from those among others, indicating much less decrease in overcrowding and even increases over certain age spans.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Baer, W. (
1976
).
The Evolution of Housing Indicators and Housing Standards: Some Lessons for the Future
.
Public Policy
,
24
,
361
93
.
Baldassare, M., Hutman, E., & van Vliet, W. (
1988
).
Residential Crowding in the United States: A Review of Research
Handbook of Housing and Built Environment in the United States
(pp.
97
108
).
Westport, CT
:
Greenwood Press
.
Booth, A., Johnson, D., & Edwards, J. (
1980
).
Reply to Gove and Hughes
.
American Sociological Review
,
45
,
870
73
. 10.2307/2094902
Booth, A., Johnson, D., & Edwards, J. (
1980
).
In Pursuit of Pathology: The Effects of Human Crowding
.
American Sociological Review
,
45
,
873
78
. 10.2307/2094903
Borjas, G.J. (
1985
).
Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants
.
Journal of Labor Economics
,
3
,
463
89
. 10.1086/298065
Borjas, G.J. (
1994
).
The Economics of Immigration
.
Journal of Economic Literature
,
32
,
1667
1717
.
Chevan, A. (
1971
).
Family Growth, Household Density, and Moving
.
Demography
,
8
,
451
58
. 10.2307/2060682
Chiswick, B.R. (
1978
).
The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-Born Men
.
Journal of Political Economy
,
86
,
897
921
. 10.1086/260717
Chiswick, B.R. (
1979
).
The Economic Progress of Immigrants: Some Apparently Universal Patterns
. In Fellner, W. (Ed.),
Contemporary Economic Problems
(pp.
357
99
).
Washington, DC
:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
.
Chiswick, B.R., & Sullivan, T.A. (
1995
).
The New Immigrants
. In Farley, R. (Ed.),
State of the Union: America in the 1990s
(pp.
211
70
).
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Choi, S.Y. 1993. “The Determinants of Household Overcrowding and the Role of Immigration in Southern California.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.
Clemmer, R.B., & Simonson, J.C. (
1983
).
Trends in Substandard Housing: 1940–1980
.
Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association
,
10
,
442
64
. 10.1111/1540-6229.00274
Galle, O.R., Gove, W.R., & McPherson, J.M. (
1972
).
Population Density and Pathology: What Are the Relations for Man?
.
Science
,
176
(
4030
),
23
30
. 10.1126/science.176.4030.23
Glazer, N. (
1967
).
The Effects of Poor Housing
.
Journal of Marriage and the Family
,
29
,
140
45
. 10.2307/349671
Gober, P. (
1993
).
Americans on the Move
.
Washington, DC
:
Population Reference Bureau
.
Gove, W.R., & Hughes, M. (
1980
).
The Effects of Crowding in the Toronto Study: Some Methodological and Empirical Questions
.
American Sociological Review
,
45
,
864
70
. 10.2307/2094901
Gove, W.R., & Hughes, M. (
1980
).
The Effects of Crowding: An Issue of Theory and Method
.
American Sociological Review
,
45
,
878
86
. 10.2307/2094904
Hall, E.T. (
1966
).
The Hidden Dimension
.
New York
:
Doubleday
.
Hongdagneu-Sotelo, P. (
1994
).
Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Jasso, G., & Rosenzweig, M.R. (
1982
).
Estimating the Emigration Rates of Legal Immigrants Using Administrative and Survey Data: The 1971 Cohort of Immigrants to the United States
.
Demography
,
19
,
279
90
. 10.2307/2060971
Krivo, L.J., & Mutchler, J.E. (
1986
).
Housing Constraint and Household Complexity in Metropolitan America: Black and Spanish-Origin Minorities
.
Urban Affairs Quarterly
,
21
,
389
409
. 10.1177/004208168602100308
Long, L. (
1988
).
Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States
.
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Mare, R. D., & Farley, R. (
1995
).
Changes in Educational Attainment and School Enrollment
State of the Union: Vol. 1, Economic Trends
(pp.
155
214
).
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Martin, P., & Midgley, E. (
1994
).
Immigration to the United States: Journey to an Uncertain Destination
.
Washington, DC
:
Population Reference Bureau
.
Mason, W.M., & Fienberg, S. (
1985
).
Introduction: Beyond the Identification Problem
. In Mason, W.M., & Fienberg, S. (Eds.),
Cohort Analysis in Social Research: Beyond the Identification Problem
(pp.
1
8
).
New York
:
Springer-Verlag
.
Massey, D.S. (
1986
).
The Settlement Process Among Mexican Migrants to the United States
.
American Sociological Review
,
51
,
670
84
. 10.2307/2095492
Myers, D., & Myers, D. (
1990
).
Introduction: The Emerging Concept of Housing Demography
Housing Demography: Linking Demographic Structure and Housing Markets
(pp.
3
31
).
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
.
Myers, D. (
1992
).
Analysis with Local Census Data: Portraits of Change
.
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Myers, D., W. Baer, and S.Y. Choi. Forthcoming. “The Changing Problem of Overcrowded Housing.” Journal of the American Planning Association 62:66-84.
Myers, D., Choi, S.Y., Lee, S., & Lee, S.W. (
1993
).
Increases in Residential Overcrowding, 1980–1990: Explanation of Prevalence and Composition
Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference of the Census Bureau
(pp.
667
87
).
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Myers, D., & Wolch, J. (
1995
).
Polarization of Housing Status
. In Farley, R. (Ed.),
State of the Union
(pp.
269
334
).
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Pader, E.-J. (
1994
).
Spatial Relations and Housing Policy: Regulations That Discriminate against Mexican-Origin Households
.
Journal of Planning Education and Research
,
13
(
2
),
119
35
. 10.1177/0739456X9401300204
Pitkin, J.R., & Myers, D. (
1994
).
The Specification of Demographic Effects on Housing Demand: Avoiding the Age-Cohort Fallacy
.
Journal of Housing Economics
,
3
,
240
50
. 10.1006/jhec.1994.1011
Portes, A., & Bach, R.L. (
1985
).
Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ryder, N. (
1972
).
Notes on the Concept of a Population
. In Riley, M., & Foner, A. (Eds.),
Aging and Society
(pp.
91
111
).
New York
:
Russell Sage Foundation
.
Spain, D. (
1990
).
The Effect of Residential Mobility and Household Composition on Housing Quality
.
Urban Affairs Quarterly
,
25
,
659
83
. 10.1177/004208169002500408
Tufte, E.R. (
1983
).
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information
.
Cheshire, CT
:
Graphics Press
.
Accuracy of Data for Selected Population Characteristics as Measured by Reinterviews
. (
1976
).
Washington, DC
:
U.S. Bureau of the Census
.
Ward, D. (
1971
).
Cities and Immigrants
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Yang, X. (
1994
).
A Sensitivity Analysis of Repeat Migration Attrition in the Study of Migrant Adjustment: The Case of Bangkok
.
Demography
,
31
,
585
92
. 10.2307/2061792