Abstract

We propose a multidimensional conceptualization of fertility demand and evaluate potential measures of each dimension, using data from a telephone survey of Wisconsin residents age 18-34. Most of the measures met tests for interval-level measurement; all produced high estimates of test-retest reliability. We found support for only two dimensions of demand, intensity and certainty; potential measures of centrality had relatively low associations with any of the latent dimensions. Demand certainty improved prediction of fertility expectations beyond a trichotomous (yes, no, don’t know) measure, but demand intensity did not. We found mixed evidence for the conceptualization of fertility demand as a single continuum on which desire to avoid pregnancy is the opposite of desire to have a child.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Bass, B. M., Cascio, W. F., & O’Connor, E. J. (
1974
).
“Magnitude Estimations of Expressions of Frequency and Amount.”
.
Journal of Applied Psychology
,
59
,
313
20
. 10.1037/h0036653
Beach, L. R., Hope, A., Townes, B. D., & Campbell, F. L. (
1982
).
“The Expectation-Threshold Model of Reproductive Decision Making.”
.
Population and Environment
,
5
,
95
108
. 10.1007/BF01367489
Cantor, N., Markus, H., Niedenthal, P., Nurius, P., & Higgins, E. T. (
1986
).
“On Motivation and the Self-concept.”
. In Sorrentino, R. M. (Ed.),
Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior
(pp.
96
121
).
New York
:
Wiley
.
Clay, D. C., & Zuiches, J. J. (
1980
).
“Reference Groups and Family Size Norms.”
.
Population and Environment
,
3
,
262
79
. 10.1007/BF01255342
Clogg, C. C. (
1984
).
“Some Models for the Analysis of Association in Multiway Cross-Classifications Having Ordered Categories.”
. In Goodman, L. (Ed.),
The Analysis of Cross-Classified Data Having Ordered Categories
(pp.
224
60
).
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Converse, P. E., & Tufte, E. R. (
1970
).
“Attitudes and Non-attitudes: Continuation of a Dialogue.”
The Quantitative Analysis of Social Problems
(pp.
163
89
).
Reading, MA
:
Addison-Wesley
.
Coombs, C. H., Coombs, L. C., & McClelland, G. H. (
1975
).
“Preference Scales for Number and Sex of Children.”
.
Population Studies
,
29
,
273
98
. 10.2307/2173512
Coombs, L. C. (
1974
).
“The Measurement of Family Size Preferences and Subsequent Fertility.”
.
Demography
,
11
,
587
611
. 10.2307/2060472
Davidson, A. R., & Jaccard, J. J. (
1975
).
“Population Psychology: A New Look at an Old Problem.”
.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
,
31
,
1073
82
. 10.1037/h0076946
Fawcett, J. T. (
1983
).
“Perceptions of the Value of Children: Satisfactions and Costs.”
. In Bulatao, R. A., & Lee, R. D. (Eds.),
Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries, Vol. 1: Supply and Demand for Children
(pp.
429
57
).
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Goodman, L. A. (
1979
).
“Simple Models for the Analysis of Association in Cross-Classifications Having Ordered Categories.”
.
Journal of the American Statistical Association
,
74
,
537
32
. 10.2307/2286971
Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (
1988
).
PRELIS
.
Mooresville, IN
:
Scientific Software
.
Goodman, L. A. (
1989
).
LISREL 7 User’s Reference Guide
.
Mooresville, IN
:
Scientific Software
.
McClelland, G. H., Bulatao, R. A., & Lee, R. D. (
1983
).
“Family-Size Desires as Measures of Demand.”
Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries, Vol 1: Supply and Demand for Children
(pp.
288
343
).
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Miller, W. B. (
1986
).
“Proception: An Important Fertility Behavior.”
.
Demography
,
23
,
579
94
. 10.2307/2061352
Morgan, S. P. (
1985
).
“Individual and Couple Intentions for More Children: A Research Note.”
.
Demography
,
22
,
125
32
. 10.2307/2060991
Raden, D. (
1985
).
“Strength-Related Attitude Dimensions.”
.
Social Psychology Quarterly
,
48
,
312
30
. 10.2307/2786693
Schaeffer, N. C., & Thomson, E. (
1992
).
“The Discovery of Grounded Uncertainty: Developing Standardized Questions about Strength of Fertility Motivation.”
. In Marsden, P. (Ed.),
Sociological Methodology 1992
(pp.
37
81
).
Washington, DC
:
American Sociological Association
.
Schuman, H., & Presser, S. (
1981
).
Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys
.
Orlando
:
Academic Press
.
Williams, L. B. (
1991
).
“Determinants of Unintended Childbearing among Ever-Married Women in the United States: 1973–1988.”
.
Family Planning Perspectives
,
23
,
212
14
. 10.2307/2135755