Summary

Most migration analyses focus on net migration and are concerned with areal redistributions of population. Migration may also be studied as an event in the life-cycle of an individual, and migration rates may be defined as properties of cohorts. A number of efforts to examine migration as a cohort process has been hampered by the character of available data [or the United States. Rather than await the development of a registration system—either directly or via social security and tax records—the collection of residence histories is suggested as the most feasible approach to obtaining suitable data. A schematic representation of residence histories clarifies their relation to other types of migration data and illustrates the need to design such surveys with specific research purposes in mind. Exploratory work with the 1958 Residence History Supplement to the Current Population Survey (by Beale, Shryock, myself, and various colleagues) demonstrates the utility of this approach.

Local studies have made fruitful use of residence histories but typically are unable to delineate birth cohorts or other appropriate base populations exposed to risk. Development of cohort migration techniques analogous to the life table approach to mortality or cohort Jertility analysis requires national data. But migration, unlike Jertility and mortality, involves events that are reversible and repeatable. Hence the demographer's stock of analytic tools requires expansion. To the sociologist-demographer, experimentation with cohort migration models seems to be getting at one of the crucial methodological problems of sociology, the analysis of social mobility. A mutually profitable interchange with students of social mobility is envisaged.

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Resumen

La mayor'ia de los análisis sobre migración se dirigen hacia el estudio de la migración neta y la redistribución especial de la población. La migración puede ser estudiada también como un suceso en el ciclo vital del individuo, y las tasas de migración pueden ser vistas como propiedades de una generación de personas. Muchos de los esfuerzos para el estudio de migración como un proceso de las cohortes han sido obtaculizados por el carácter de los datos censales disponibles en cuanto se refiere a los Eetados Unidos. Las historias sobre lugares de reeidencia son la mejor forma para conseguir datos apropiados en vez de esperar el desarrollo de sistemas de registro, bien sean ellos directamente o a travéz de organizaciones como el seguro social o los registros de impuestos. Una representaci'on esquemáiica de las historias de residencies clarifica su relaci'on con otros tipos de datos de miqraci'on, e ilustra la necesidad de diseñar tales investigaciones con objetivos específicos claros. Un estudio exploratorio hecho por Beale, Shryock, varios colegas y yo, que utiliz'o los datos delsuplemento al Current Population Survey de 1958 correspondiente a la historia de residencias, demuestra la utilidad de este sistema.

Estudios locales han hecho uso fructífero de las historias de residencias pero han sido incapaces de delinear cohortes de nacimientos u otras bases apropiadas de poblaciones ezpuesias al riesgo. El desarrollo de las técnicas de migraci'on mediante las cohorte, análogas a la obtenci'onde la mortalidad mediante las toblas de vida, o al análisis defertilidad, requieren datos nacionales. Pero la migraci'on, a diferencia de la mortalidad y natalidad, se refiere a sucesos que son reversibles y reiterables. Por lo tanto, ei dem'ografo necesita expandir sus herramientas de trabajo. Para el dem'ografo soci'ologo, la experimeniaci'on con modelos de generaciones de migrantes parece ir aparejada con los problemas metodol'ogicos cruciales de la sociología como es por ejemplo, el análisis de la movilidad social. Se deja entrever un intercambio benéfico con los estudiosos de la movilidad social.

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