Abstract

Recent changes in older men’s retirement patterns are investigated for the United States. The results show that labor force incumbents, particularly those in secondary occupations, experienced increases in the volume of both retirement and reentry to the labor force. In addition, although working life expectancy remained relatively stable across occupations, men in secondary occupations spent increasingly greater portions of their work lives in postretirement jobs. Finally, large increases in nonworking life expectancy occurred because of substantial increases in life expectancy. In several occupations, however, declines in working life expectancy were major contributors to increases in nonworking life expectancy.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Ball, R. (
1978
).
Social Security Today and Tomorrow
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Chapman, S. H., La Plante, M. P., & Wilensky, G. (
1986
).
Life expectancy and health status of the aged
.
Social Security Bulletin
,
49
,
24
48
.
Cornfield, D. B. (
1981
).
Industrial social organization and layoffs in American manufacturing industry
. In I. Berg (Ed.),
Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets
(pp.
219
248
).
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Farkas, G., & England, P. (
1985
).
Integrating the sociology and economics of employment, compensation, and unemployment
. In R. L. Simpson, & I. H. Simpson (Eds.),
Research in the Sociology of Work (Vol. 3): Unemployment
(pp.
119
146
).
Greenwich, Conn.
:
JAI Press
.
Graebner, W. (
1980
).
A History of Retirement
.
New Haven, Conn.
:
Yale University Press
.
Hardy, M. A. (
1985
).
Occupational structure and retirement
. In Z. Blau (Ed.),
Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Course
(pp.
111
146
).
Greenwich, Conn.
:
JAI Press
.
Haveman, R. H., & Wolfe, B. L. (
1984
).
Disability transfersand early retirement: A causal relationship?
.
Journal of Public Economics
,
24
,
47
66
. 10.1016/0047-2727(84)90004-5
Hayward, M. D. (
1986
).
The influence of occupational characteristics on men’s early retirement
.
Social Forces
,
64
,
1032
1045
. 10.2307/2578793
Hayward, M. D., & Grady, W. R. (
1986
).
The occupational retention and recruitment of older men: The influence of structural characteristics of work
.
Social Forces
,
64
,
644
666
. 10.2307/2578817
Hoem, J. (
1977
).
A Markov chain model of working life tables
.
Scandinavian Actuarial Journal
,
1
,
1
20
.
Kaufman, R. L., & Spilerrnan, S. (
1982
).
The age structures of occupations and jobs
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
87
,
827
851
. 10.1086/227523
A. R. Miller, D. J. Treiman, P. S. Cain, & P. A. Roos (
1980
).
Work, Jobs, Occupations: A Critical Review of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
.
Washington, D.C.
:
National Academy Press
.
Vital Statistics of the United States, 1972
. (
1974
).
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980
. (
1984
).
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
O’Rand, A. M. (
1986
).
The hidden payroll: Employee benefits and the structure of workplace inequality
.
Sociological Forum
,
1
,
657
683
. 10.1007/BF01107341
Parsons, D. (
1980
).
The decline in male labor force participation
.
Journal of Political Economy
,
88
,
117
134
. 10.1086/260850
Piore, M. I. (
1975
).
Notes for a theory of labor market stratification
. In R. C. Edwards, M. Reich, & D. Gordon (Eds.),
Labor Market Segmentation
(pp.
125
150
).
Lexington, Mass.
:
Health
.
Quinn, I. F. (
1977
).
Microeconomic determinants of early retirement: A cross-sectional view of white married men
.
Joumal of Human Resources
,
12
,
329
346
. 10.2307/145494
Quinn, I. F. (
1980
).
Labor-force participation patterns of older self-employed workers
.
Social Security Bulletin
,
43
,
17
28
.
Schervish, P. G. (
1981
).
The structure of employment and unemployment
. In I. Berg (Ed.),
Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets
(pp.
153
186
).
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Quinn, I. F. (
1983
).
The Structural Determinantsof Unemployment: Vulnerability and Power in Market Relations
.
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Schoen, R., & Woodrow, K. (
1980
).
Laborforce status life tables for the United States, 1972
.
Demography
,
17
,
297322
297322
. 10.2307/2061105
Schulz, I. H. (
1985
).
To old folks with love: Aged income maintenance in America
.
The Gerontologist
,
25
,
464
471
.
Simpson, I. H., Simpson, R. L., Evers, M., & Poss, S. S. (
1982
).
Occupational recruitment, retention, and labor force cohort representation
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
87
,
1287
1313
. 10.1086/227594
Smith, S. J. (
1982
).
Tables of Working Life:The Increment-Decrement Model
.
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1986
. (
1985
).
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
Verbrugge, L. M. (
1984
).
Long life but worsening health? Trends in health and mortality of middle-aged and older persons
.
Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly/Health and Society
,
62
,
475
519
. 10.2307/3349861
Willekens, F. (
1980
).
Multistate analysis: Tables of working life
.
Environment and Planning A
,
12
,
536
588
. 10.1068/a120563
Zopf, P. E. (
1986
).
America’s Older Population
.
Houston, Tex.
:
Cap and Gown Press
.