Resumen

Para ilustrar con mayor precisi6n la real naturaleza demográfica del movimiento migratorio de los Estados Unidos hacia el Oeste, se estudió la evolución de la población durante el período que abarcó la rápida colonización de las fronteras agricolas del Noroeste y del Lejano Oeste entre 1840 y 1860, y se comparó con las características de los Estados Unidos en conjunto y de otras regiones durante el mismo período. Contrariamente a lo que corrientemente se afirma en cuanto que, el movimiento migratorio haciael Oester estuvo principalmente formado por hombres jóvenes, el análisis indicó que fué ante todo un movimiento de familias. Los nin~os menores de 10 an~os de edad constituyeron alrededor de un tercio de las poblaciones de la frontera y las mujeres de todas las edades alcanzaron a más del 44 por ciento, en tanto que los hombres mayores de 20 an~os de edad representaron sólo 28 por ciento de la población agrícola media de esas regiones.

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References

1
Thomas D. Clark,Frontier America (New York, 1959), p. vi Thomas P. Abernethy, “The Southern Frontier, an Interpretation,” in Walker D. Wyman and Clifton B. Kroeber (eds.),The Frontier in Perspective (Madison, 1957), p. 130; Paul W. Gates, “Frontier Estate Builders and Farm Laborers,” in Wyman and Kroeber,op.cit., Walker D. Wyman and Clifton B. Kroeber (eds.),The Frontier in Perspective (Madison, 1957), 143 ff.; Frederick Jackson Turner,The Frontier in American History (New York, 1953), p. 219. See also Ray A. Billington,Westward Expansion (New York, 1949), p. 756, and Robert E. Riegel,America Moves West (New York, 1956), p. 72. The most dogmatic and inaccurate generalizations come from sociologists: Warren S. Thompson,Population Problems (New York, 1953), p. 86 and T. Lynn Smith,Population Analysis (New York, 1948), pp. 361, 363.
2
Carrol D. Wright,The History and Growth of the United States Census (Washington, 1900), pp. 28, 32, 39–43, 138–39, 142–43; Walter F. Willcox,Studies in American Demography (Ithaca, 1940), pp. 85–87
3
Willcox,op. cit., Carrol D. Wright,The History and Growth of the United States Census (Washington, 1900), pp. 28, 32, 39–43, 138–39, 142–43; Walter F. Willcox,Studies in American Demography (Ithaca, 1940), pp. 85–86, 95, 96, 98, 121, 129–33; Wright,op. cit., pp. 28, 32, 39–43, 50–52.
5
Cyrenus Cole,Iowa Through the Years (Iowa City, 1904), p. 104;The History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois (Chicago, 1878), pp. 221–31, 241, 247, 344; Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), 99–100, 121, 144, 150, 160, 300–302, 305–07, 363–65; Don Whiteside and Douglas G. Marshall, “Differential Population Growth in LaFayette County, Wisconsin, 1847–1957” (Madison, University of Wisconsin College of Agriculture [mimeographed], 1960), p. 12;Sixth Census, or Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States as Corrected at the Department of State in 1840 (Washington, 1841), pp. 385, 461, 463, 467. Lafayette was part of Iowa County, Wisconsin, until 1846.
6
(Sixth Census, pp. 377–93; Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960) pp. 67, 135, 165, 185, 201, 246, 275, 300-302;History of Lee County [Chicago, 1881], pp. 35, 56–59).
7
Boone and Winnebago counties, Illinois, have an area of 822 square miles (Kane,op. cit., pp. 53, 278;Sixth Census, pp. 377, 395;Boone County, Illinois [Chicago, 1877], pp. 234–36; Charles A. Church and H. H. Waldo,Past and Present of the City of Rockford and Winnebago County, Illinois [Chicago, 1905], pp. 6–51, 56, 62–68, 74–77, 81).
9
See Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 96, 151, 165, 172, 195, 237, 305–07;Sixth Census, p.467.
10
Cedar, Clinton, Linn, and Jones counties had an 1840 population of 3,907 in an area of 2,578 square miles (Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 70, 80, 152, 169;Sixth Census, pp. 466–67;History of Cedar County, Iowa [Chicago, 1878], p. 310;History of Clinton County, Iowa [Chicago, 1879], p. 337).
11
See Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 135, 148, 262, 269;Sixth Census, p. 467.
12
See Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 53, 91, 175, 214, 267; Roscoe L. Lokken,Iowa Public Land Disposal (Iowa City, 1942), pp. 3540; Irving B. Richman,Ioway to Iowa (Iowa City, 1931), pp. 217.
13
(Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 112, 187, 206, 216, 252; W. T. Giles,History of Pottowattomie County, Iowa [Chicago, 1883], p. 20;History of Fremont County, Iowa [Des Moines, 1881], pp. 504 ff.;History of Page County, Iowa [Des Moines, 1880], pp. 355–58, 378;History of Taylor County, Iowa [Des Moines, 1881], pp. 389–91; John A. Todd,Early Settlement and Growth of Western Iowa [Des Moines, 1906], pp. 27, 65;Iowa [New York, 1938], p. 204).
14
See Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 92, 144, 233, 235, 256, 262, 272, 356-57;The Seventh Census of the United States, 1850 (Washington, 1853), 1004–05, 1007, 1010.
15
See Kane,op. cit., pp. 49,225,262, 332-33; andSeventh Census, pp. 996, 1003–10.
16
(Kane,op, cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 49, 75, 169, 177, 214, 282, 342–43;Seventh Census, pp. 996, 1003, 1007).
17
The area was 3,112 square miles; the 1860 population was 4,005 (Lokken,op, cit., pp. 4652; Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 70, 110,128,281, 305–07).
18
Plymouth counties have an area of 3,111 square miles and contained 5,664 people in 1860 (Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 131, 189, 213, 279, 305-07).
19
(Kane,op. cit.., pp. 60, 70, 91, 97, 158, 269, 328–31).
20
(Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 61, 69, 93, 214, 236).
21
(Kane,op. cit., Joseph N. Kane,The American Counties (New York, 1960), pp. 59, 93, 98, 126, 175, 186, 213;The Eighth Census: Population of the United States in 1860 [Washington, 1864], pp. 559–60;The Eighth Census: Agriculture of the United States in 1860 [Washington, 1864], pp. 172–73).
22
SeeHistory of Steele and Waseca Counties, Minnesota (Chicago, 1887), pp. 420 ff.; Kane,op. cit., pp. 52, 58, 106, 112, 199, 268, 319–21;Eighth Census: Population, pp. 261–63;Eighth Census: Agriculture, pp. 80–81.
24
See Merle Curti,The Making of an American Community (Stanford, 1959), pp. 12–16;Eighth Census: Population, pp. 528–29.

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