Abstract

Breast-feeding is the focus of rapidly growing interest. Research on the determinants of breast-feeding is only beginning. The research in this paper is based on World Fertility Survey data for Sri Lanka. We develop what we believe to be an appropriate probit model and find that there are significant socioeconomic factors that influence breast-feeding, in addition to the demographic factors focused upon in the literature. Moreover, some of them have clear policy implications, which are elaborated herein with respect to labor force, education, family planning and internal migration policies. In the course of the paper we also address a number of generally neglected statistical issues that should be considered in analyzing the determinants of breastfeeding, including problems resulting from digit preference or age heaping, the need to use dichotomous dependent variables, unavoidable truncation biases in the basic data, and structural shifts in the determinants of breastfeeding at different durations.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Bachi, R. (
1951
).
The Tendency to Round Off Age Returns: Measurement and Correction
.
Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute
,
33
,
195
221
.
Bachi, R. (
1954
).
Measurement of the Tendency to Round Off Age Returns
.
Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute
,
34
,
127
129
.
Cantrell, P., & Leridon, H. (
1971
).
Breast-Feeding, Mortality in Childhood, and Fertility in a Rural Zone in Senegal
.
Population Studies
,
25
,
505
533
. 10.2307/2173082
Carrier, N. H. (
1959
).
A Note on the Measurement of Digital Preference in Age Recordings
.
Journal of the Institute of Actuaries
,
85
,
71
85
.
Chandra, R. K. (
1978
).
Immunological Aspects of Human Milk
.
Nutrition Review
,
36
,
265
272
. 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1978.tb07393.x
Eubank, Douglas C. 1970. A Review of the Evidence on the Sources and Patterns of Age Misreporting in Less Developed Countries. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, April 10–12, Denver, Colorado.
Goldfeld, Steven M., & Quandt, Richard E. (
1976
).
Studies in Non-Linear Estimation
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Ballinger
.
Henry, L. (
1961
).
Some Data on Natural Fertility
.
Eugenics Quarterly
,
8
,
81
91
.
Jain, Anrudh K. and John Bongaarts. 1980. Socio Biological Factors in Exposure to Childbearing: Breast-feeding and Its Fertility Effects. Paper presented at the World Fertility Survey Conference, London, July 7-11.
Jelliffe, Derrick B., & Jelliffe, E. F. Patrice (
1978
).
Human Milk in the Modern World
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Knodel, J. (
1977
).
Breast-Feeding and Population Growth
.
Science
,
198
,
1111
1115
. 10.1126/science.929189
Knodel, J. and N. Debavalya, 1980. Breast-Feeding in Thailand: Trends and Differentials, 1969–1979. University of Michigan and Chulalongkorn University, mimeo.
Menken, J. A., & Sheps, M. C. (
1970
).
On Relationships Between Longitudinal Characteristics and Cross-Sectional Data
.
American Joumal of Public Health
,
60
,
1506
1514
. 10.2105/AJPH.60.8.1506
Myers, Robert J. 1940. Errors and Bias in the Reporting of Ages in Census Data. Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America 41, Part 2(104):395–415. Reproduced in U.S. Bureau of the Census (1951), Handbook of Statistical Methods for Demographers, pp. 115–125.
Osteria, Trinidad S. (
1978
).
The Effects of Breastfeeding and Contraception on the Interpregnancy Interval of Urban Filipino Women
. In Mosley, W. Henry (Ed.),
Nutrition and Reproduction
.
New York
:
Plenum
.
Page, Hilary J., Ferry, B., Shah, I. H., & Lesthaeghe, R. (
1980
).
The Most Recent Births: Analytical Potential and Some Underlying Problems. Paper presented at Seminar on the Analysis of Maternity Histories
.
London
:
IUSSP, World Fertility Survey, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
.
Pindyck, D. S., & Rubinfeld, D. L. (
1976
).
Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts
.
New York
:
McGraw Hill
.
Popkin, Barry M., Bilsborrow, Richard, Yamamoto, Monica, & Akin, John (
1979
).
Feeding in Low Income Countries: Patterns and Determinants. Carolina Population Center Papers
.
Chapel Hill
:
Carolina Population Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
.
Rindfuss, R. R., & Bumpass, L. L. (
1977
).
Fertility During Marital Disruption
.
Journal of Marriage and the Family
,
39
,
517
527
. 10.2307/350906
Rosa, F. W. (
1975
).
Breast-Feeding in Family Planning
.
PAG Bulletin
,
5
,
5
10
.
Rosa, F. W. (
1976
).
Breast-Feeding. A Motive for Family Planning
.
People
,
3
,
10
13
.
Sheps, Mindel C., & Menken, Jane A. (
1973
).
Mathematical Models of Conception and Birth
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Shryock, Henry S., & Siegel, Jacob S. (
1976
). Stockwell, E. G.
The Methods and Materials of Demography
.
New York
:
Academic
.
Singarimbun, Masri, & Manning, Chris (
1974
).
Fertility and Family Planning in Mogolama
.
Jogjakarta, Indonesia
:
Institute of Population Studies, Gadjah Mada University
.
Som, R. K. (
1968
).
Recall Lapse in Demographic Enquiries
.
Bombay
:
Asia Publishing House
.
Sørensen, Aage B. (
1977
).
Estimating Rates from Retrospective Questions or How the Present Affects the Past
. In Heise, David R. (Ed.),
Sociological Methodology
.
San Francisco
:
Jossey-Bass
.
Sosa, Robert, Kennel, John H., Klaus, Marshall H., & Urrutia, Juan J. (
1976
).
The Effect of Early Mother-Infant Contact on Breast-Feeding, Infection and Growth
Breast-feeding and the Mother
.
Amsterdam
:
Elsevier North-Holland
.
Tindal, J. S. (
1974
).
Hypothalmic Control of Secretion and Release of Prolactin
.
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility
,
39
,
437
461
. 10.1530/jrf.0.0390437
Tyson, J. E., Khojandi, M., Huber, J., Smith, B., & Thomas, P. (
1975
).
The Inhibition of Cyclic Gonadotropin Secretion by Endogenous Human Prolactin
.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
,
121
,
375
379
.
Manual IV: Methods of Estimating Basic Demographic Measures from Incomplete Data
. (
1976
).
New York
:
United Nations
.
Van Ginneken, Jerome K. (
1978
).
The Impact of Prolonged Breast-Feeding on Birth Intervals and on Post Partum Amenorrhoea
. In Mosley, W. Henry (Ed.),
Nutrition and Reproduction
.
New York
:
Plenum
.
WHO Collaborative Study on Breast-Feeding
. (
1979
).
Geneva
:
WHO
.