An important study by Friedlander investigated some of the effects of different demographic responses on national demographic transitions. England and Sweden were advanced as cases that approximated the suggested hypothetical models of transitions. His argument implied that the rural population of a country (in this case Sweden) experiencing mortality decline but little industrialization would reduce its fertility rates if out-migration from agricultural areas were not possible. This present study, using more complete data and better measures, concludes that this did not occur in Sweden—it did not conform to Friedlander’s hypothesized model. Because the potential implications of these findings could be profound and wide-ranging, there is a need for more studies of individual countries using better data and giving more careful attention to Davis’s theory on which the Friedlander hypothesis is based.