Abstract

This is a comparison of the 1950-1970 trends in population size of U.S. nonmetropolitan cities and villages among 26 homogeneous subregions. There are wide variations in the proportion of the nonmetropolitan population in incorporated places, and, though this proportion generally increased over the 1950-1970 period, decentralizing tendencies also are evident. There was most often a decline in the differential between the growth rate of incorporated places and of open country over the two decades. The positive association between initial size of place and growth, present in half of the subregions in the 1950s and indicative of population centralization, was found only in the Corn Belt, Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain subregions in the 1960s. There were regionally distinctive differences in all variables considered; most notably, the percent of places growing ranged 50 percentage points over the 26 subregions. The extent of subregional variation revealed by this analysis indicates how differences in physiography, climate, history, and economy continue to be reflected in settlement trends which are obscured when larger regional groupings are used.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Beale, Calvin L., & Fuguitt, G. V. (
1975
).
The New Pattern of Nonmetropolitan Population Change
.
Madison
:
Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin
.
Berry, Brian J. L. (
1967
).
The Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution
.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice Hall
.
Berry, Brian J. L., & Pred, A. (
1965
).
Central Place Studies; A Bibliography of Theory and Applications. Second printing with revisions through 1965
.
Philadelphia
:
Regional Science Research Institute
.
Bogue, Donald J. (
1949
).
The Structure of the Metropolitan Community
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Bogue, Donald J., & Beale, C. L. (
1961
).
Economic Areas of the United States
.
New York
:
Free Press of Glencoe
.
Brunner, Edmund de S., & Kolb, J. H. (
1933
).
Rural Social Trends
.
New York
:
McGraw-Hill Book Company
.
Brunner, Edmund de S., & Smith, T. L. (
1944
).
Village Growth and Decline, 1930–1940
.
Rural Sociology
,
9
,
103
115
.
Christaller, Walter (
1933
).
Die zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland
.
Jena (Germany)
:
Fischer
.
Christaller, Walter (
1966
).
The Central Places of Southern Germany. Trans. C. Baskin
.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
.
Duncan, O. Dudley, Cuzzort, R. P., & Duncan, B. (
1961
).
Statistical Geography: Problems in Analyzing Areal Data
.
Glencoe, Ill.
:
The Free Press
.
Duncan, O. Dudley, Scott, W. R., Lieberson, S., Duncan, B., & Winsborough, H. (
1960
).
Metropolis and Region
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Eldridge, H. T. (
1942
).
The Process of Urbanization
.
Social Forces
,
20
,
311
316
. 10.2307/3005615
Elliott, Foster F. (
1933
).
Type of Farming in the United States
.
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Department Commerce, Bureau of the Census
.
Fanelli, A. Alexander, & Pedersen, H. A. (
1956
).
Growth Trends of Mississippi Population Centers, 1900-1950
.
State College
:
Mississippi State College
.
Friedman, R. P., & Miller, J. (
1965
).
The Urban Field
.
Journal of the American Institute of Planners
,
31
,
312
319
. 10.1080/01944366508978185
Frisbee, W. P., & Poston, D. L. (
1975
).
Components of Sustenance Organization and Nonmetropolitan Population Change: A Human Ecological Investigation
.
American Sociological Review
,
40
,
773
784
. 10.2307/2094179
Fuguitt, Glenn V. (
1963
).
Trends in Unincorporated Places, 1950–1960
.
Demography
,
2
,
363
371
. 10.2307/2060124
Fuguitt, Glenn V. (
1971
).
The Places Left Behind: Population Trends and Policy for Rural America
.
Rural Sociology
,
36
,
449
470
.
Fuguitt, Glenn V. (
1972
).
Population Trends of Nonmetropolitan Cities and Towns in the United States
. In Sara Mills Mazie (Ed.),
Population, Distribution, and Policy. Vol. V of the research reports of the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future
(pp.
109
126
).
Washington, D.C.
:
U. S. Government Printing Office
.
Fuguitt, Glenn V., & Beale, C. L. (
1976
).
Population Change in Nonmetropolitan Cities and Towns
.
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
.
Galpin, Charles J. 1915. The Social Anatomy of an Agricultural Community. Madison: University of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 34.
Hansen, Niles M. (
1971
).
Intermediate-Size Cities as Growth Centers
.
New York
:
Praeger Publishers
.
Hart, J. F., & Salisbury, N. E. (
1965
).
Population Change in Middle Western Villages: A Statistical Approach
.
Annals of the Association of American Geographers
,
55
,
140
160
. 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1965.tb00511.x
Hathaway, Dale E., Beegle, J. A., & Bryant, W. K. (
1968
).
People of Rural America
.
Washington, D.C.
:
U.S. Government Printing Office
.
Hassinger, Edward (
1956
).
Factors Associated with Population Changes in Agricultural Trade Centers of Southern Minnesota, 1940–1950
.
Minneapolis
:
Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota
.
Jusenius, Carol L., & Ledebur, L. C. (
1976
).
A Myth in the Making: The Southern Economic Challenge and Northern Economic Decline. Economic Development Research Report
.
Washington, D.C.
:
Office of Economic Research, Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
.
Kolb, John L. (
1959
).
Emerging Rural Communities
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
.
Kuehn, J. A., & Bender, L. D. (
1975
).
Migration, Growth Centers, and the Ozarks
.
Growth and Change
,
6
,
43
48
. 10.1111/j.1468-2257.1975.tb00791.x
Lively, Charles E., and R. B. Almack. 1938. A Method of Determining Rural Social Subareas with Application to Ohio. Columbus: Ohio State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 106.
Lively, Charles E., and C. L. Gregory. 1948. Rural Social Areas in Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 414. Mangus, Arthur R. 1940. Rural Regions in the United States. Works Projects Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Morrison, P. A., & Wheeler, J. P. (
1976
).
Rural Renaissance in America?
.
Population Bulletin
,
31
,
1
26
.
Northam, R. M. (
1969
).
Population Size, Relative Location, and Declining Urban Centers: Conterminous United States, 1940–1960
.
Land Economics
,
45
,
313
322
. 10.2307/3145017
Pappenfort, D. M. (
1959
).
The Ecological Field and the Metropolitan Community: Manufacturing and Management
.
American Journal of Sociology
,
64
,
380
385
. 10.1086/222498
Ratcliffe, S. C. (
1942
).
Size as a Factor in Population Changes of Incorporated Hamlets and Villages, 1930–1940
.
Rural Sociology
,
7
,
318
328
.
Rice, Roger R., & Beegle, J. A. (
1972
).
Differential Fertility in a Metropolitan Society
.
Morgantown
:
West Virginia University
.
Roseman, Curtis C. (
1977
).
Changing Migration Patterns Within the U.S
.
Washington, D.C.
:
Association of American Geographers
.
Smith, Suzanne M. (
1970
).
An Annotated Bibliography of Small Town Research
.
Madison
:
Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin
.
Spengler, Joseph J. (
1975
).
Population and America’s Future
.
San Francisco
:
W. H. Freeman and Company
.
George Sternlieb, & J. W. Hughes (
1975
).
Post-industrial America: Metropolitan Decline and Inter-regional Job Shifts
.
New Brunswick, N. J.
:
Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University
.
Taylor, Carl C., Raper, A. F., Ensminger, D., Hagood, M. J., Longmore, T. W., McKain, W. C., Ducoff, L. J., & Schuler, E. A. (
1949
).
Rural Life in the United States
.
New York
:
Alfred A. Knopf
.
Till, T. E. (
1974
).
Industrialization and Poverty in Southern Nonmetropolitan Labor Markets
.
Growth and Change
,
5
,
18
24
. 10.1111/j.1468-2257.1974.tb00277.x
Wardwell, J. M. (
1977
).
Equilibrium and Change in Nonmetropolitan Growth
.
Rural Sociology
,
42
,
156
179
.
Woofter, T. J. (
1934
).
The Subregions of the Southeast
.
Social Forces
,
13
,
43
50
. 10.2307/2570216