Resumen

El propósito de este estudio es describir y analizar la migraci6n interna en la URSS, principal-mente utilizando datos del censo de 1926 de la URSS. El articulo esta dividido en dos partes. La primera parte esia dedicada a una descripci6n de los patrones de migraci6n agregado y regional basado en datos sobre lugar de nacimiento. La segunda parte es un analisis de esios patrones de migraci6n, principalmente en terminos de diferenciales econ6micas por guberniya. Debido al hecho de que hay disponibles sólo limitados datos sobre ingresos, para el periódo alrededor de 1926, y que tambien otros datos económicos son escasos 0 no utilizables por los cambios de demarcación, se han utilizadocomo variables de sustituciónlos datos delcenso sobre la distribución de la fuerza de trabajo, alfabetismo, y urbanización, para tener una apreciación de las diferencias de ingreso.

La migración es un fenómeno complejo, relacionado con una serie defactores. El presente estudio no intenta explicaren forma completa la migración en la URSS, pero tratade anlisar diferencias en ingreso y relacionarlas conla migración interna queocurrió durante esie periodo. Como resultado del procesamiento y analisis de un extenso conjunto de datos, hemos mostrado que las diferencias en el ingreso, derivadas indirectamente de una variedad de datos, estan estrechamente relaciondas con la migración interna en la URSS, en el periodo anterior al censo de 1926. Hubo tambier; notables similitudes con respecto a la migración interna entre el periodo previo al censo de 1897 y el periodo anterior al censo de 1926. Las principales areas de emigracion e inmigración eran mas 0 menos las mismas, y los migrantes en ambos periódos se movilizaron principalmente hacia areas de mayor ingreso.

Summary

The purpose of this study is to describe and to analyze internal migration in the USSR primarily by the use of data from the 1926 census of the USSR. The article is divided into two parts. The first is devoted to a description of the aggregate and regional migration patterns based on place-of-birth data. The second is an analysis of these migration patterns, primarily in terms of economic differentials by guberniya. Because only limited income data are available for the period around1926 and because other economic data are scarce or unusable owing to boundary changes, census data on labor force distribution, literacy, and urbanization are used as substitute variables to approximate income differences.

Migrationis a complex phenomenon related to a host of factors. The present study does not presume fully to explain migration in the USSR, but it does attempt to isolate differences in income and to relate these to the internal migration that occurred during this period. As a result of processing and analyzing an extensive array of data, we have shown that differences in income, derived indirectly from a variety of data, are closely related to internal migration in the USSR in the period prior to the 1926 census. There were striking similarities in respect to internal migration between the period prior to the 1897 census and the period prior to the1926 census. The chief areas of out-migration and in-migration were roughly the same,and migrants in both periods moved primarily to areas of higher income.

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References

1
Census data, unless otherwise indicated, are from Tsentral’nyy Statisticheskiy Komitet, Pervaya Vseobshchaya Perepis’ Naseleniya Rossiyskoy Imperii, 1897 g. (St. Peterburg: 1905), 89 vols.; and Tsentral’noye Statisticheskoye Upravleniye, Vsesoyuznaya Perepis’ Naseleniya 1926 Goda (Moskva: 1929), 56 vols.
5
For a more detailed discussion of internal migration in Russia based on the 1897 census, see J. William Leasure and Robert A. Lewis, “Internal Migration in Russia in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Slavic Review, forthcoming.
8
The results have been presented in Slavic Review (December, 1966), and the methods are explained in detail in a monograph by the authors entitled Population Changes in Russia and the USSR: A Set of Comparable Territorial Units (San Diego: San Diego State College Press, 1966).
9
Data for these calculations are from Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, RSFSR, Goroda Soyuza SSR (Moskva, 1927). The cities that were included in the 100,000 or more category comprised 82.2 percent of the population of centers of that size in 1926, and the corresponding proportion for the 50,000 to 100,000 category was 69.8 percent.
11
J. William Leasure and Robert A. Lewis, Population Changes in Russia and the USSR: A Set of Comparable Territorial Units, op. cit.
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J. William Leasure and Robert A. Lewis, “Internal Migration in Russia in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Slavic Review, forthcoming.
17
Ibid. J. William Leasure and Robert A. Lewis, “Internal Migration in Russia in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Slavic Review, forthcoming.
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