We use household and community data from the Philippines to estimate a multilevel model of contraceptive use. We go beyond previous efforts in this field by developing a structural model that recognizes joint endogeneity and the temporal ordering of variables, by considering a wider range of community influences on fertility behavior, and by employing an econometric procedure allowing for a multilevel error structure. The results suggest that there are significant effects on fertility behavior of community-level family planning services, labor-market conditions, and infrastructure development. These results provide insights regarding the structural determinants of contraceptive use and fertility that are useful for drawing policy implications.

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