In this study, we use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the relationship between household structure and childhood immunization in Niger and Nigeria. We show that household structure is an important determinant of childhood immunization in Nigeria: Children from nuclear, elementary polygynous, and three-generational households are worse-off than those from laterally extended households. However, the lower odds of full immunization among children from three-generational and elementary polygynous households are attributable to low economic status and low maternal education levels, respectively. In Niger, household structure does not have a significant effect on children’s likelihood of being fully immunized.

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