The effects of access to piped water on the trends in child mortality and on differentials by income class are analyzed using data on surviving children and other variables in samples of urban mothers aged 20–29 in 1970 and 1976. Path analytic regression techniques are used to test a recursive model linking the supply and demand for piped water to selected household and community level variables, and to examine their joint effect on child mortality. The model’s estimated parameters for 1970 and 1976 are used to analyze changes in mortality between the two dates. Increased maternal education accounts for a larger share of the mortality decline than any other single factor. Increased access to piped water also contributes to mortality decline, and such access helps to reduce the mortality differential between lower and higher income and education classes.

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