The number of children born to the second generation is shown to be inversely related to tbe predicted income of the first generation (father’s father) and to the number of siblings in the second generation. This is true even when second-generation characteristics are taken account of. This long-term effect may be the result of parental influences on the tastes, opportunities or genes of their children. They do get an empirical expression because of the imperfect and partial measurement of second-generation characteristics.

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