An American cyberculture theorist and political activist, Chris Hables Gray was born in 1953 in Bishop, California. Gray is chiefly associated with the concept of the cybernetic organism or cyborg in addition to ideas regarding contemporary warfare and the politics of citizenship in the era of posthumanism. Inspired by his adviser in the History of Consciousness (Histcon) doctoral program at the University of California at Santa Cruz, Donna Haraway (1991, 1997), and to a certain extent also by the pioneering work of Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan Kline (1960), Gray's writings are broadly comparable to those of N. Katherine Hayles (1999) and such fellow Histcon graduates as Paul Edwards (1996), Chela Sandoval (1995), Ron Eglash (1999), Jennifer Gonzalez (1995), Joe Dumit (Dumit and Davis-Floyd 1998), Sarah Williams (1995), and Rosanne Allucquére Stone (1995a)...

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