January 13, 2012. The plane is circling down into Cajamarca, a small city in the Andes in northern Peru. We see it laid out in the hollow, a gridiron of streets from a central plaza, advancing up one side of the circle of green mountains. In the small airport a sign says Bienvenido a Cajamarca, Cuidad de Fiesta. I have arrived two weeks before Carnaval. The guidebook says that Cajamarca is the Rio de Janeiro of Peru; from all over Peru people come for carnival. But outside tourists associate Cajamarca with the place where it all started—Pizarro’s conquest. In 1532 Francisco Pizarro González landed on the coast with 168 armored and helmeted soldiers, 62 on horseback, armed with lances and steel swords, and marched up to Cajamarca, where, they learned from informants they had tortured, the Inca Atahualpa had camped with his armies....

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