The article is a theoretical and historiographic overview of imperial citizenship, centered on the Ottoman case, with comparative dialogue with the Qajar, Qing, Russian, and Habsburg cases. Drawing on her own previous scholarship and an overview of recent scholarship in these fields, Campos argues that in these empires complex and multilayered projects of imperial citizenship had developed by the turn of the twentieth century that encompassed institutional reform, intellectual and civil society engagement in an imperial public sphere, and the development of notions and practices of imperial belonging, patriotism, and political participation.

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