Usman Hamid and Pasha M. Khan’s introduction to the special section “Circulation and Language: Iranians in Early Modern South Asia” highlights the arguments made by the five contributors. The section explores the formation and functioning of the Persian cosmopolis in early modern South Asia through the heuristic of migration from the Persianate West. Three thematics emerge from its essays: the shape of space in the cosmopolis; the engagement of language and literature with space, both cosmopolitan and local; and the importance of networks and cultural capital to the cosmopolitan circulation of people and texts.

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