The connections among anticolonial nationalism, internationalism, and cosmopolitanism in the early twentieth century expand our understanding of the Indian freedom movement in new directions, beyond the activities and leadership of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. This essay continues the conversation on the connections between people, networks, and the internationalist outlook of revolutionary politics in the early twentieth century by focusing on five Muslim revolutionaries who, Saikia argues, played a pioneering role in launching the anticolonial struggle in the international arena. Although Saikia introduces the thought of five of these revolutionaries, she pays particular attention to two of them: Obaidullah Sindhi and Iqbal Shedai, investigating their strategies, sources of inspiration, and visions of freedom for India.

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