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Published: 03 September 2001
DOI: 10.1215/9780822380771-008
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8077-1
Published: 06 June 2007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8961-3
... kurakas in 1562 legal action 73 table 3. Pueblos established by Toledo in the Colca Valley 96 table 4. ‘‘Hamlets’’ settled into Toledo’s Coporaque, Lope de Suazo, 1574 97 table 5. The ayllu in the Colca Valley 109 table 6. Sixteenth-century kurakas of the Colca Valley 123 table 7. La Gasca...
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-006
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... with which Toledo committed the state’s energies to a campaign of sudden and uniform social transformation was new. And it went hand in hand with an aggressive package of reforms to the Church, secular government, the law and the economy. These...
Published: 26 March 2012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9502-7
... segunda (detail) 30 6 Sabino López, Cosijopi 31 7 Francisco Toledo, Juárez y el petate del muerto 36 8 Malaquías Montoya, The Oppressor 38 9 Rogelio Naranjo, Libertad a los presos políticos 39 10 Francisco Toledo, Libertad a Víctor Yodo 41 11 Manuel Hernández Trujillo, Love Life...
Book Chapter

By Jeremy Ravi Mumford
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-008
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... 7 — Tyrants Don Francisco de Toledo was a creative and a destructive fig- ure. An aristocrat trained to command, decisive, and willing to confront challengers with violence, he made enemies but also had a gift for mobilizing the talents of subordinates...
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... 6 — The Viceroy Toledo arrived in Lima in late November, 1569, but not to stay. Like his predecessors, Toledo ordered a General Inspection, a Visita General, the most famous one in colonial times. Leav- ing Lima less than a year after his arrival...
Published: 31 January 1990
DOI: 10.1215/9780822382843-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8284-3
... "Because All the Indians Have Died": Cuzco, 1720 H E SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY chronicler Guaman Poma de T Ayala claimed that Francisco de Toledo died brokenhearted after being recalled to Spain in disgrace in 1581 to confront royal officials critical of his administration...
Published: 01 November 2012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... vigor with which Toledo committed the state’s energies to a campaign of sudden and uniform social transformation was new. And it went hand in hand with an aggressive package of reforms to the Church, secular government, the law and the economy...
Published: 06 July 2018
DOI: 10.1215/9780822371618-012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7161-8
... their case in 1582, after the crucial period (1569–81) in which Viceroy Francisco de Toledo was laying the institutional foundations for colonial society in the Andes. Though Toledo had to negotiate with native lords, for example to consolidate the mita (forced labor draft), he sought, with some...
Book Chapter

By Jeremy Ravi Mumford
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-013
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... Villarreal al vir- rey Toledo” [c. 1570], f. 304v; “una casilla que mas parece de monejos que de hombres, . . . vivir vestialmente, durmiendo con su madre e hijas.” 2 Murra, “El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológi- cos en la economía de las...
Published: 06 June 2007
DOI: 10.1215/9780822389613-006
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8961-3
... convenient for the Indians who live dispersed and spread about to be reduced into villages with design and order, in healthy places and of good disposition. —ViceroyToledo’s instructions for the realm’s inspectors, Lima, 1569– 70, Guillermo Lohmann Villena, Francisco de Toledo,1...
Published: 24 September 2002
DOI: 10.1215/9780822383932-200
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8393-2
... PRINTING PERMISSION GRANTED BY GONZALO DÁVILA, SOCIETY OF JESUS i, gonzalo dávila, provincial of the Society of Jesus in the Province of Toledo, by special instruction that I have received for the purpose from Father Claudio Aquaviva, our director general, give permis...
Published: 21 September 2015
DOI: 10.1215/9780822375265-007
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7526-5
... On July 30, 2001, Alejandro Toledo was inaugurated as president of Peru in a ceremony that took place in Machu Picchu—the quintessential icon of tourism in the country. In addition to national state officials and Latin American presidents, the ceremony included Andean ritual experts. One of them...
Book Chapter

By Jeremy Ravi Mumford
Published: 01 November 2012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
...Appendix 1. The Tasa of the General Inspection Of the documents that the General Inspection generated, the most important one from Toledo’s point of view was the tasa or tribute scale, which Toledo finalized in 1575 based on the inspectors’ re- ports. It...
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-009
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... 8 — On the Ground Under Viceroy Toledo’s authority, more than a million people were assigned to live in about six hundred reducciones. To- ledo called universal forced resettlement “the first and most important part” of his work as...
Published: 31 January 1990
DOI: 10.1215/9780822382843-002
EISBN: 978-0-8223-8284-3
... inequalities in the reduccionsystem imposed by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in the 15 70S only stimulated Indian migration, and the inability of that system to reincorporate mi- 9 10 • INDIGENOUS MIGRATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE grants who...
Published: 30 April 2014
DOI: 10.1215/9780822376743-011
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7674-3
..., Francisco de Toledo (see also Ramos, chapter 1). This dogged administrator under- took thorough reforms during his long term of office (1569–81). He is best known for mandating reducción as part of his extensive ordinances concern- ing Indians: a program of forced resettlement of indigenous...
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-001
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
...Introduction In 1569, the Spanish empire undertook something new in the history of European colonialism: forcing an entire con - quered society to change its way of life overnight. The vice- roy, don Francisco de Toledo, ordered the native people of the...
Book Chapter

By Jeremy Ravi Mumford
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.1215/9780822395591-012
EISBN: 978-0-8223-9559-1
... don Francisco de Toledo can appear quixotic. While visiting the shores of Lake Titicaca during the General Inspection, he was informed that the people of the province spoke two different languages: the women spoke Puquina and the men Aymara. He ordered that everyone in the...
Published: 06 July 2018
DOI: 10.1215/9780822371618-021
EISBN: 978-0-8223-7161-8
... top. As community representatives, the caciques served as crucial cultural intermediaries with Spanish society and as the indispensable linchpin in the system of indirect colonial rule. Under the institutional regime established by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, they collected tribute, organized mita...